||An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants.
|Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
||A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects.
||Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
||Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium.
||The outer covering of trees.
||A volatile liquid produced through pyrolysis of carbon rich substances such as biomass from forestry and agricultural residues. Pyrolysis is the transformation of a carbon-rich substance into one or more substances by heat in the absence of oxygen. It is often referred to a destructive distillation.
||A technique for determining the effectiveness of a substance by measuring its effects on animals, tissues or organisms and comparing them to the effects of a standard preparation.
||Capable of being decomposed (broken down into simpler forms of matter) under natural conditions—that is, by the action of insects, other animals, and microorganisms. Materials derived from biological sources, as well as artificial materials sufficiently similar to them, are biodegradable.
||An economy based on the manufacturing and trade of commodities and services derived from renewable biological resources as well as on the trade of non-timber forest products.
||The kinetic energy released from biomass when it is eaten, burned or converted into fuel, or the potential energy embodied in biomass.
||A fuel that is derived from plant biomass, by chemical or geological processes.
||A combustible gas and type of biofuel produced by the decomposition of biological materials (for example, forestry residues and municipal waste) through anaerobic digestion (that is, in the absence of oxygen) or fermentation. Typical biogas consists of 50 to 60% methane and carbon dioxide.
||The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.).
||The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass.
||A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment.
||Plastic-like materials made from renewable, carbon-rich substances such as biomass (carbohydrates, cellulose, etc.).
||Any polymer that is produced by a living organism or synthesized from renewable biomass. Naturally occurring biopolymers include proteins and starch (which are composed of amino acid and sugar monomer units, respectively); synthetic biopolymers include bioplastics, biotextiles, and some nanofibres.
||A process that uses the processing capability of living cells (for example, yeasts) or their components (for example, enzymes) to create a commercially useful product.
||A consumer or industrial product that is made from biomass. Bioproducts are often made using a bioprocess and include a broad range of commodities intended for markets such as energy, transportation, chemicals, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals.
||The search for compounds within plants and other organisms that, due to their effects on living cells, could lead to new pharmaceuticals and other bioproducts.
||The refining or separating of raw materials, such as biomass into their molecular components—mainly cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin—then further refining or transforming these intermediates into further manufactured products such as energy, fuels, chemicals and material.
||A liquid solution by-product of the so-called “kraft” wood pulping process, composed of lignin residues, hemicellulose, and the chemicals used in the process. Polluting if discharged into water, black liquor can be recovered and put to good use to create value-added bioproducts.
||A chemical element highly abundant in nature and easily capable of forming polymers. Its unique properties make carbon the chemical basis of all biological compounds—and therefore, the chemical basis of life. Carbon is incorporated into biological processes and biomass mainly through plant photosynthesis. (See also carbon dioxide.)
||Any material, e.g. sawdust, that is thoroughly mixed with seed, fertilizer, herbicide, etc., to protect it in transit.
||A polymer of glucose molecules, used by plants as a structural supporting material. Paper is made up of cellulose.
||A carbohydrate (sugar-based biopolymer compound) that is the main structural component of green plants. (See also carbon.)
||The simultaneous production of electricity and heat from steam.
||Component materials used in the manufacture of shipping containers and other corrugated board products.
||Waste substances released into the air or water.
||Raw material, such as forest biomass, used as input in an industrial process to make a product.
||Transformation of organic substrates, especially carbohydrates, into chemical intermediates with micro-organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, molds and fungus for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials.
||A material in which the wood is reduced to predominantly individual fibres by mechanical or chemical means, or a combination of the two. Virgin fibre is derived from trees not previously processed into paper; recycled fibre has been reclaimed from a previous product such as old newsprint and reprocessed and incorporated into a new product.
||Multilayer materials of carbon fibre, steel, glass, natural fibres including hemp, cereal straw, flax with binders (resins) moulded or formed into intermediate products such as building materials, automotive parts and machinery, etc. Distinct properties in each layer produce a composite with a combination of properties.
||Composés renforcés de fibres
||Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
||Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern.
||Any novel material derived from forest biomass (particularly wood fibre and cellulosic residues) for industrial use. Forest biomaterials can be blends of natural fibres and polymers (for example, biocomposite building materials) or biopolymers (for example, bioplastics, biotextiles, and nanofibres).
||A plant that uses renewable forest feedstocks (for example, harvest residues, effluent extracts, and black liquors) to integrate the production of conventional forest products with that of value-added bioproducts and bioenergy. A forest biorefinery aims at maximizing the feedstocks’ value by recovering all of the intermediate and end products, hence yielding minimum waste and pollution.
||The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources.
||Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other.
||syn. fuelwood plantation
Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning.
||According to Health Canada, any food or food component demonstrated to have a compound that provides physiological benefits and/or reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond its basic nutritional functions. Functional foods are similar in appearance to or may be conventional foods and are consumed as part of a usual diet.
||Substance used to kill fungi.
||Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores.
||Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases.
||Conversion of a carbon-rich feedstock (usually solid) to a gas using high temperatures and a limited amount of oxygen.
||A representation of the relative locations of genes along a chromosome marked with probes and/or genetic markers.
|Genetically modified organism (GMO)
||An organism that has had its DNA sequence altered through genetic engineering, a natural process, or the action of mutagens.
||Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM)
||Plate-shaped membrane located under the cap of a fungus; all of the gills together form the hymenium.
||Chemical processes, products, and technologies that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment and that incorporate energy efficient methods, the use of renewable feedstocks, and other such considerations in their design.
||Increasing the fertility of soil by raising suitable herbaceous crops on it, particularly Fabaceae, but also Cruciferae and Gramineae, and digging or ploughing them while succulent, with or without supplementary fertilizers.
|Greenhouse gas sinks
||Any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases or their precursors from the atmosphere. The principal natural mechanism is photosynthesis.
||Puits de gaz à effet de serre
||Any agent present or provided as a supplement to the plant or its environment to activate growth.
||Déclencheur de croissance
||Capable of surviving and recovering from the application of herbicides.
||Tolérant aux herbicides
||Within an artificial environment, such as a test tube, as opposed to in vivo.
||Within a natural environment, such as a living organism, as opposed to in vitro.
|Industrial plantation forestry
||Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc.
||The use of a new idea, material or technology to produce new goods or services or to change the way in which goods or services are produced or distributed. Innovation can include improved managerial systems, new production techniques, new technology, the results of research and development, or the application of information technologies.
||Organic liquid contained in certain plant and animal structures, eg, plant sap.
||A chamber having controlled air flow, temperature and relative humidity, which is used for drying lumber, veneer and other wood products.
||Séchoir à bois
||A complex and relatively hydrophobic biopolymer present in the secondary cell walls of vascular plants—and particularly abundant in wood—that gives rigidity to plant stems and allows them to conduct water efficiently.
||Also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol. It is formed in the destructive distillation of wood or made synthetically, and used especially as an alternative fuel, a gasoline additive, a solvent, an antifreeze, or a denaturant for ethyl alcohol.
|Living modified organism (LMO)
||As defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
||Organisme vivant modifié (OVM)
||Commonly the dung of farm animals. Also natural or artificial food material for plants and trees, supplying nitrogen, phosphates, and potash and other essential nutrients.
||A microscopic one or multi-celled organism, such as a bacterium, virus, yeast, alga, fungus and protozoan.
||Living organisms (bacteria, microbes, yeasts) that can be seen only with a microscope. Micro-organisms that are likely to cause disease in other living organisms are called pathogens.
||A general term for a unicellular or multicellular microscopic organism. Classifications of microorganisms include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.
||Visible reproductive part of any of various fungi.
||Champignon de sol
||Nano structures made from pure cellulose used in coating, papermaking, drug delivery, biocide dispersion, composite products, etc.
||The manufacture of materials and structures with dimensions that measure up to 100 nanometers (billionths of a metre).
|Non-timber forest products
||Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc.
||Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
||The building blocks of DNA (and RNA), each containing one nitrogenous base—adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine (uracil in RNA)— a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA).
||A complex spherical body found in most plant, animal, and fungal cells; it is enclosed by a membrane and contains chromosomes.
||According to Health Canada, a product isolated or purified from foods (including from specific forest-based foods) that is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease. Nutraceuticals are usually sold in medicinal forms, not as foods, and are generally considered part of the vitamin and pharmaceutical market.
||Potential woody biomass resources available for salvage following natural disturbances—for example, wood damaged by insect pests such as the mountain pine beetle, by disease, or by fire or wind — or forestry activities — for example, small-diameter or other trees left standing. In some cases, harvesting and construction residues are also viewed as opportunity wood.
||Group of tissues organized to perform a distinct function.
||A small element produced mechanically from wood. Particles can be further subdivided based on their geometry into categories or types such as chips, flakes, shavings, sawdust and slivers. Particle dimensions are typically 25 mm or less along the grain direction and of varying widths and thicknesses.
||Particules de bois
|Particle gun transformation
||Transformation par canon à particules
||A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial.
||A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease.
||Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet.
||Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal.
||A highly complex organic compound that exists in every plant in various mixes, ratios and concentrations. Phenols include, for example, many plant pigments.
||Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand.
||Foresterie de plantation
||Any natural or synthetic compound of high molecular weight composed of numerous repeated simple subunits (monomers) sharing pairs of electrons. Examples include plastics and high-strength fibres. (See also biopolymer.)
||A functional organic macromolecule assembled from amino acids linked with peptide bonds; a product of gene expression.
||Wood chips that have been ground mechanically into fibres and are used for the production of inexpensive paper, such as newsprint, or that have been chemically treated to remove the lignin and are used to manufacture higher quality papers.
||A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product.
||Évaluation des risques
||Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers.
|Seed collection area
||A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest.
||Zone de récolte de semences
|Specialty wood product
||Any forest commodity made of wood and not intended for the high-volume conventional forest sector, thus excluding lumber, fibreboard, and pulp and paper. Examples include carvings, canoes, snowshoes, bowls, utensils, toys, jewellery, decorative boxes, and musical instruments. Specialty wood products often enhance the value of residual wood from forest harvesting (for example, tree stumps, knotted trees, and blue-stained wood attacked by the mountain pine beetle) or of shrub and tree species with a unique wood grain pattern (for example, bird’s eye maple).
||Produit du bois spécialisé
||1. Silviculture: A living stump capable of producing sprouts or shoots.
2. Propagation: A living stump maintained to produce cuttings, layers, etc.
||A specialized knife-cut wood flake of controlled thickness and a length along the grain orientation of at least twice and usually many times its width.
||Part of trunk with roots remaining after a tree has been cut down.
||A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health.
||Équivalence en substance
||A mixture of gases resulting from reacting carbon rich substances with steam in a reduced oxygen environment (partial oxidation), which contains mostly carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The organic source materials can be biomass, natural gas, methane, naphtha, heavy petroleum oils and coke (coal).
||Gaz de synthèse
||An oily liquid by-product of the so-called “kraft” pulping process (particularly of pine wood), composed of a mixture of rosins, fatty acids, and other substances. Soaps, emulsifiers, adhesives, and lubricants are only a few of the many value-added bioproducts that can be made from recovered tall oil.
||Thermal and chemical processes by which carbon-rich substances are converted to intermediate chemicals for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials.
||A general term for forest crops and stands, and sometimes for any lesser aggregation of such trees.
||Multiple rows of trees planted to provide environmental benefits (including wind protection, soil conservation, and wildlife corridors) and the opportunity for woody biomass production for conversion into bioenergy and other bioproducts. It can also act as an agroforestry system for the production of agricultural or forest-derived crops.
||A general term for the cultivation of plant or animal tissues in a controlled artificial environment on defined media under aseptic conditions.
||Culture de tissus
||Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria.
||A product that has had value added to it through further processing. Examples include windows, doors, kitchen cabinets, flooring and mouldings. Value-added pulp and paper products include items such as packaging, diapers, coated papers, tissue, business papers, stationery and other consumer paper products.
||Produit à valeur ajoutée
||Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it.
||Primitive microorganisms that must infect the living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria in order to replicate. When outside the host cells, viruses adopt a form consisting, most of the time, of a RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by a protein matrix.
||The act of dropping suppressants (water or short-term retardant) on a wildfire from an aircraft in flight.
||A plant tissue composed essentially of lignified fibers of cellulose and hemicellulose. Wood is present in the stems of trees and shrubs where it ensures support and conducts water. (See also cellulose and lignin.)
||A mixture or mechanical combination of wood and plastic resins that are solid in a finished state, are mutually insoluble and differ in chemical nature.
||Composite bois plastique
||Plant tissue containing lignin, the main component of wood.