|-3/2 power law of self-thinning
||Dense populations that have reached a size at which mortality occurs demonstrate a negative relationship between log mean plant weight and log stand density; this generally has a slope of -3/2.
||Relation à la puissance -3/2 de l’éclaircie naturelle
||Stress induced by the non-living component of the environment.
||Lands within Aboriginal reserves or Aboriginal settlements.
||The descendants of the original inhabitants of North America. The Canadian Constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal people—Indians, Métis and Inuit. These are three separate peoples with unique heritages, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs.
||Rights that some Aboriginal peoples of Canada hold as a result of their ancestors’ long-standing use and occupancy of the land. The rights of certain Aboriginal peoples to hunt trap and fish on ancestral lands are examples of Aboriginal rights. Aboriginal rights will vary from group to group depending on the customs, practices and traditions that have formed part of their distinctive cultures.
||Droits des Autochtones
||A legal term that recognizes the interest of Aboriginals in the land. It is based on their long-standing use and occupancy of the land as descendants of the original inhabitants of Canada.
||Order included in the class Arachnida. The members of this order (mites and ticks) are very tiny organisms with an unsegmented abdomen and generally four pairs of unjointed legs.
||A species of less commercial value than the principal species but sometimes useful in assisting the latter and liable to influence the method of treatment to some degree.
||Any silvicultural system derived from one or more of the basic systems and not dependent on any particular method of regeneration.
||Rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog, usually with acidity below pH 5.6. Acidic precipitation is primarily the result of emissions of gases of sulphur and nitrogen oxides which are transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively as they are transported over distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from their source.
||Hard fruit of the oak tree, which contains the seed.
||A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met.
|Adaptive management area
||Stands or forest types that require similar management practices and are grouped as one unit for the purposes of silviculture management.
||Aire de gestion adaptée
||An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants.
||Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation.
||The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation.
||A distinct group of trees or portion of growing stock recognized on the basis of age.
||An age class of one or at the most a few years.
||A genus of naturally occurring soil bacteria used to transfer genes into plants.
||The deliberate integration, in space or time, of woody perennials with herbaceous crops and/or animals on the same land management unit.
||Limiting extension of a root system beyond a container by exposure to air.
||Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age.
||De tous âges
||One of the possible alternative forms of a gene or of any DNA sequence occupying a specific position along a chromosome. The specific combination of alleles in an individual forms its genotype.
||The negative influence of a plant, other than a microorganism, upon another plant, through chemical exudate during their metabolism.
|Allowable annual cut (AAC)
||The amount of timber that is permitted to be cut annually from a particular area. AAC is used as the basis for regulating harvest levels to ensure a sustainable supply of timber.
||Possibilité annuelle de coupe (PAC)
||The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period.
||Possibilité de coupe
||A group of 20 organic compounds, combinations of which are bonded together in long chains to make proteins.
|Ammoniacal copper quaternary
||A wood preservative used to replace a preservative (chromated copper arsenic) that contains arsenic.
||Cuivre ammoniacal quaternaire
||Heavy chains, often with spikes welded to the links, used in drag scarification.
||Feeding on flowers.
||Fond of flowers. Organism that has a close relationship with flowers, normally including the collection of pollen or nectar as a food source.
||Foliar disease characterized by reduced growth of some portions of the lobes and by the development of necrotic lesions between the veins and on the leaf margins; these lesions may spread to the entire leaf and then the buds and, in extreme cases, the twigs.
||Emission caused by human activities (for example, burning fossil fuels or setting fires to clear forest land for agricultural purposes).
||Chemical substance capable of preventing the development of micro-organisms.
||Capable of killing fungi or impeding their development.
||A substance that the organism identifies as foreign, hence triggering the release of antibodies as a defence response.
||Tip or top of an animal or plant structure.
||Cup-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores).
||Pertaining to the culture of trees.
||A place where many kinds of trees and shrubs are grown for scientific and educational purposes.
||The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit.
||The setting of a number of individual fires throughout an area, either simultaneously or in quick succession, and so spaced that they soon coalesce, influence, and support each other to produce a hot, fast-spreading fire throughout the area.
||Allumage de zone
||Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease.
||Superficie en régénération
||They allow licensees to harvest timber over a specific land base. Tenure holders are often required to assume forest management responsibilities.
||Tenures fondées sur la superficie
||Phylum of invertebrate animals that possess an exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed appendages (legs). Arthropods include crustaceans, spiders and insects.
||Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings.
||Sexual stage of ascomycetes fungi, either an apothecium, a perithecium or a cleistothecium, which contains the asci and ascospores.
||Fungus spore produced within an ascus.
||Bag-like structure that develops within an ascomata and is made up of a membrane in which ascospores are produced; the ascospores are discharged from the ascus at maturity.
||Reproduction without fertilization. New individuals may develop from vegetative parts such as tubers, bulbs, or rooted stems, or from sexual parts such as unfertilized eggs or other cells in the ovule.
||Having corresponding parts that are irregularly arranged in relation to one another. Opposite of symmetrical.
||Describes an organ or part of a body that is reduced in size, rudimentary.
||Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger.
||Plantation à la tarière
||An organism capable of synthesizing the organic nutrients it needs from the mineral compounds present in nature. Plants and many bacteria are autotrophs or producers. Autotrophs do not need to obtain their nutrients from other living organisms. By contrast, heterotrophs cannot make their own food and so they feed on the tissues of other organisms.
||Birds, in particular, all the birds of a given site: the avifauna of a marsh, a prairie, etc.
|Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
||A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects.
||Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
||An administrative term used to classify inadequately stocked forest land that has been denuded (cut over, burned, etc.).
||Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium.
|Balance of trade
||The difference between the value of the goods and services that a country exports and the value of the goods and services that it imports. If a country’s exports exceed its imports, it has a trade surplus; if imports exceed exports, the country has a trade deficit.
||Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled.
||Plantation en mottes
||Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers in a linear strip on or along crop rows rather than over the entire ground area.
||Pulvérisation en bandes
||Removing a broad band of bark, from several centimetres to a metre wide, all round a living bole with some sapwood or without, so as to kill (with or without the aid of herbicide), or at least weaken, the tree.
||Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band.
||The outer covering of trees.
||Removing the bark of a tree in narrow strips.
||1. Of a tree: The area in square metres of the cross section at breast height of the stem.
2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: The area in square metres per hectare of the cross section at breast height of all trees.
|Basal bark treatment
||A treatment for killing trees and brush in which a herbicide is applied, by sprayer or brush, to a band of bark encircling the basal portion of the stem.
||Traitement arboricide cortical (à la base de l’arbre)
||A treatment consisting of forcing a liquid or an encapsulated herbicide into the basal portion of a tree.
||Injection à la base de la tige
|Base of tree
||Part of the tree consisting of the first 25 cm of trunk.
||Base de l'arbre
|Basic forest management
||Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary.
cf. extensive forest management
||Aménagement forestier de base
||All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking.
||Sylviculture de base
||Fungus spore produced on a basidium.
||Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed.
||Plantation en paniers
||A horizontal wood support member typically larger in cross-section than a joist.
||A site preparation procedure in which the soil is mounded mechanically to provide a well-drained ridge on which seedlings are planted or seeds distributed naturally or directly.
||A product made from composite material that is easier to manufacture in a large size than in many smaller pieces and that is then cut into the desired dimensions for the final product.
||A volatile liquid produced through pyrolysis of carbon rich substances such as biomass from forestry and agricultural residues. Pyrolysis is the transformation of a carbon-rich substance into one or more substances by heat in the absence of oxygen. It is often referred to a destructive distillation.
||A technique for determining the effectiveness of a substance by measuring its effects on animals, tissues or organisms and comparing them to the effects of a standard preparation.
||A range of chemical substances made from forest biomass and typically used in industrial applications.
||Made of a resin matrix and reinforced with natural fibres.
||Capable of being decomposed (broken down into simpler forms of matter) under natural conditions—that is, by the action of insects, other animals, and microorganisms. Materials derived from biological sources, as well as artificial materials sufficiently similar to them, are biodegradable.
||The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity).
||An economy based on the manufacturing and trade of commodities and services derived from renewable biological resources as well as on the trade of non-timber forest products.
||The kinetic energy released from biomass when it is eaten, burned or converted into fuel, or the potential energy embodied in biomass.
||A fuel that is derived from plant biomass, by chemical or geological processes.
||A combustible gas and type of biofuel produced by the decomposition of biological materials (for example, forestry residues and municipal waste) through anaerobic digestion (that is, in the absence of oxygen) or fermentation. Typical biogas consists of 50 to 60% methane and carbon dioxide.
||A transformation method in which metal particles coated with one organism’s genetic material are propelled into the cells or tissues of another to allow for the uptake of the genetic material.
|Biological pest control methods
||The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides.
||Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
||The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.).
||The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass.
||A range of novel materials made from forest biomass and typically used in industrial applications.
|Biomaterials and Biochemicals
||A growing and diverse class of forest biomass-based products that are not typical pulp and paper or wood products.
||Biomatériaux et produits biochimiques
||A major biotic community composed of all the plants and animals in a specific geographical region and smaller biotic communities. The smaller communities in a biome possess similarities in gross external appearances and gross climatic conditions.
||Methanol produced from biomass instead of the conventional raw material and processes.
||A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment.
||Plastic-like materials made from renewable, carbon-rich substances such as biomass (carbohydrates, cellulose, etc.).
||Any polymer that is produced by a living organism or synthesized from renewable biomass. Naturally occurring biopolymers include proteins and starch (which are composed of amino acid and sugar monomer units, respectively); synthetic biopolymers include bioplastics, biotextiles, and some nanofibres.
||A process that uses the processing capability of living cells (for example, yeasts) or their components (for example, enzymes) to create a commercially useful product.
||A consumer or industrial product that is made from biomass. Bioproducts are often made using a bioprocess and include a broad range of commodities intended for markets such as energy, transportation, chemicals, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals.
||The search for compounds within plants and other organisms that, due to their effects on living cells, could lead to new pharmaceuticals and other bioproducts.
||The refining or separating of raw materials, such as biomass into their molecular components—mainly cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin—then further refining or transforming these intermediates into further manufactured products such as energy, fuels, chemicals and material.
||The portion of the earth comprising the lower atmosphere, the seas, and the land surface (mantle rock) in which living organisms exist.
||As defined in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the application of science and engineering in the direct or indirect use of living organisms, or parts or products of living organisms, in their natural or modified forms. It refers to the techniques through which organisms such as plants, fungi, or microorganisms can be used to provide products or services.
||Pertaining to life; concerning the living component of the environment.
||A liquid solution by-product of the so-called “kraft” wood pulping process, composed of lignin residues, hemicellulose, and the chemicals used in the process. Polluting if discharged into water, black liquor can be recovered and put to good use to create value-added bioproducts.
||Thin, flat part of a leaf.
||Using the straight blade of a crawler tractor or similar equipment to remove coarse woody debris and thick duff off the site to create planting lines or spots.
||Préparation du terrain par coupe à la cisaille
||A relatively large wood product made by gluing together small pieces of wood, which can then be cut to size for different uses and products.
||Any forest area in a crop or stand that has remained virtually unstocked, more particularly in plantations. A planting point where the tree has failed or is missing.
|Bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP)
||A semi-chemical pulp that has been bleached. Used to produce printing and writing papers, coated papers, packaging and tissue.
||Pâte chimico-thermomécanique blanchie (PCTMB)
||Rapid browning or blackening of leaves, which subsequently die, caused by the deterioration of growing tissues.
||Circular bulge caused by the excessive growth of cells in part of a leaf, often with fungal cells mixed in.
||Removal of the crop in blocks in one or more operations, generally for wildlife management purposes, encouraging regeneration, or protecting fragile sites.
Considered in Ontario to be a variation of clearcutting.
||Coupe par blocs
||A panel product made by gluing together strips of wood, which can be used as core by covering both surfaces with wooden veneers or used as is for cutting boards and other products.
||Tree or trees felled or broken off by wind, snow, ice or age.
||A unit of volume used for softwood and hardwood lumber: one board foot equals 1/12 of a cubic foot.
||Softwood lumber of standardized sizes that is typically less than 2 inches thick. Used in manufacturing and carpentry
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone.
||The broad circumpolar vegetation zone of the high northern latitudes. Although mainly covered with trees, the boreal zone is more than just forest. It contains lakes, rivers and wetlands, as well as naturally treeless terrain such as alpine areas, heathlands in regions where the climate is influenced by the ocean, and grasslands in drier areas.
||Relates to an organism that bores into and feeds on the woody and non-woody portions of plants.
||Lateral root pruning on four sides of nursery stock in situ. Previous undercutting is usually implicit.
||Élagage latéral (des racines)
|Boxboard (also known as paperboard)
||A thick, strong paper material suitable for packaging lighter products, such as cereal or batteries.
||Carton pour boîtes (aussi appelé carton)
||Having reduced wings that are shorter than the abdomen.
||Secondary woody stem arising from the trunk of a tree and bearing shoots.
||The standard height, 1.3 m above ground level, at which the diameter of a standing tree is measured. On sloping ground, breast height is usually measured on the uphill side of the tree.
||Hauteur de poitrine
||Allowing a controlled fire to burn over a designated area within well-defined boundaries, for reduction of fuel hazard, as a silvicultural treatment, or both.
||The scattering of fertilizer or other mixture more or less evenly over an area.
||Fertilisation à la volée
||Shrubs and stands of short, scrubby tree species that do not reach merchantable size.
Sometimes includes woody and herbaceous plants that impede regeneration or growth of desirable species. Often rated as "brush hazard".
||A blade having scarifier teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large objects like tree roots and rocks off a site, leaving smaller stones, soil, etc. in place.
||Lame à rémanents
||An implement with blades mounted on a horizontal power-driven shaft, for reducing the bulk of slash after felling and so facilitating planting.
||Broyeuse de rémanents
||The removal of undesirable herbaceous and woody vegetation by manual or mechanical means.
||Plant organ containing the immature tissues that will become a leaf, branch or flower.
||Removal of lateral buds from a stem to prevent them from developing into branches.
||Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed.
||A band of forest left relatively undisturbed so as to protect some element of the environment, such as a streambank from erosion.
||A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways and recreation sites.
||A modified stem, usually underground, consisting of one or more buds surrounded by thick, fleshy, food storage scale leaves.
||Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes.
||Plantation en cartouches
||A connection between two pieces of wood by simply gluing together two end surfaces without any additional reinforcements.
||A place for storing seedlings close to the planting site.
||Thickening and hardening of the cambium tissues which occur as part of a plant's response to a wound.
||Fast-growing tissue that produces wood and phloem (vascular cambium) and bark (cork cambium).
|Canadian Council of Forest Ministers
||A forum for the federal, provincial and territorial governments to work cooperatively, through their respective ministers, in addressing major areas of common interest concerning Canada’s forests. The Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada serves as the council’s secretariat.
||Conseil canadien des ministres des forêts
|Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
||A leading developer of standards and codes, including an internationally recognized forestry certification system. The CSA is a not-for-profit, membership-based association.
||Association canadienne de normalisation (CSA)
||Lesion of the cambium and the living bark of trees that alters and kills these tissues in a localized area.
||The more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees.
||syn. canopy cover class, crown class
Any class into which crops or stands may be divided on the basis of the degree of closure.
||Classe de couvert
||The amount of foliar cover, combining the extent of canopy closure and crown density.
||Densité du couvert
|Capital and repair expenditures
||Capital expenditures include the cost of procuring, constructing and installing new durable plants, machinery or equipment, whether for replacement of worn or obsolete assets, as additions to existing assets or for lease or rent to others. Repair expenditures include costs to repair and maintain structures, machinery and equipment.
||Dépenses en immobilisations et réparations
||A chemical element highly abundant in nature and easily capable of forming polymers. Its unique properties make carbon the chemical basis of all biological compounds—and therefore, the chemical basis of life. Carbon is incorporated into biological processes and biomass mainly through plant photosynthesis. (See also carbon dioxide.)
||Comparative evaluation of the amount of carbon stored in natural forests (sinks) and the amount emitted by them (sources), which is undertaken to determine whether the forests are sequestering more carbon than they are emitting to the atmosphere. Carbon budgets can be drawn up on various scales, including global.
||Bilan de carbone
|Carbon dioxide (CO2)
||A colourless, odourless, non-combustible gas. Humans and all other living organisms give off carbon dioxide in respiration and decomposition. Trees and other plants absorb it and use it during photosynthesis. CO2 also emitted as a by-product of burning fossil fuels.
||Dioxyde de carbone (CO2)
The total direct greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions produced by a facility to manufacture a range of products or an individual product.
||When the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere equals the amount sequestered or offset.
||The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned.
||Piégeage de carbone
||A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores.
||Puits de carbone
||Structure bearing the spores of a fungus, often composed of a cap and a stem.
||Any material, e.g. sawdust, that is thoroughly mixed with seed, fertilizer, herbicide, etc., to protect it in transit.
||Any of numerous insects that hide under a case, a shelter made by cutting and tying pieces of leaf together with silk; they feed and move around within this shelter. Casebearers are members of the order Lepidoptera .
||A short-term, generally agricultural crop introduced into and at the start of a longer-rotation forest crop, mainly to provide early financial returns.
||Larval form of the immature stage of Lepidopterans. Transforms into a butterfly or moth.
||A drooping cluster of flowers or fruits on a flexible axis (resembling the tassels on wheat).
||(Entomology) A space in an insect wing partly or completely surrounded by veins.
(Cytology) The structural and functional unit of most living organisms.
||The most basic unit of a living organism capable of independent growth and reproduction.
||A polymer of glucose molecules, used by plants as a structural supporting material. Paper is made up of cellulose.
||A carbohydrate (sugar-based biopolymer compound) that is the main structural component of green plants. (See also carbon.)
|Cellulose filaments (CF)
||An ultra-lightweight ribbonlike material with unique bonding properties. Provides extra strength and improved absorption in products such as facial tissues and paper towels without sacrificing softness.
||Filaments de cellulose (FC)
||A nanomaterial commonly processed into a liquid or gel form. Strengthens paper and board products and can also be used in biocomposites, paints and other high-value products.
||Nanofibrilles de cellulose
||Anterior part of the body consisting of the fused head and thoracic segments.
||One of a pair of appendages located at the posterior end of the abdomen.
||Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place.
|Chain of custody
||The process of monitoring the production and distribution of goods from the forest to the end-product, i.e., tracing the origin of the product.
||Continuité de possession
||syn. chain clearing, cabling in British Columbia.
A method of reducing or clearing undesirable scrub by dragging through it a heavy chain (generally further weighted by objects such as concrete cylinders or large steel balls).
||A crack in the surface of a piece of wood resulting from uneven drying.
||The anterior, usually fanglike, pair of appendages in arachnids that are used to chew prey.
||Made from wood fibres broken down by chemicals (usually kraft or sulphite) instead of mechanical force.
||A modification of strip cutting where the strip is angled part way along its length.
||Coupe par chevrons
||Refers to the modified mouth parts of some insects that comprise a pair of mandibles enabling them to chew and tear up food.
||Compound secreted by the epidermis in arthropods and making up the bulk of their cuticle (outer layer of the body).
||An outer or edge component member of a truss.
|Chromated copper arsenic
||A wood preservative that in most instances has been replaced by ammoniacal copper quaternary.
||Arséniate de cuivre et de chrome
||A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.
||The pupa of butterfly. Intermediate stage between the larval stage and the adult in lepidopterans.
||Taxonomic level between Phyllum and Order. Eg, class Insecta
||Knot-free wood formed subsequent to pruning.
||Bois sans défaut
||n: An area of forest land from which all merchantable trees have recently been harvested. syn. clearcutting
v: To harvest all merchantable trees from an area of forest land.
||Coupe à blanc
||A silvicultural method in which most merchantable trees in a stand are harvested simultaneously, producing a fully exposed microclimate for the development of a new age class.
||Coupe à blanc
||A method of regenerating an even-aged forest stand in which new seedlings become established in fully exposed microenvironments after removal of most or all of the existing trees. Regeneration can originate naturally or artificially.
||Mode de régénération par coupe à blanc
||1. A considerable open space in a forest, which can be natural or artificial.
2. Removal of standing, usually scrubby, vegetation to prepare a site for reforestation.
||Spherical ascomatum (with no opening) found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores).
||An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity.
|Climate change adaptation
||An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli.
||Adaptation au changement climatique
|Climate change mitigation
||Human intervention to reduce the effects of climate change.
||Atténuation du changement climatique
||Evaluation of genotypes by comparing clones in a plantation.
||All plants reproduced asexually from a common ancestor and having identical genotypes. Named clones are given non-Latin names preceded by the abbreviation "cl".
||In biotechnology, obtaining a group of genetically identical cells from a single cell; making identical copies of a gene.
||The aggregate of stems issuing from the same root, rhizome system, or stool.
An isolated, generally dense, group of trees.
||Group of flowers or fruits borne on a common axis.
||The simultaneous production of electricity and heat from steam.
|Coarse woody debris
||The standing and downed dead wood in a forest.
||Débris ligneux grossier
||Case of silk in which the pupa is formed.
||A vertical support member used mostly in construction.
||Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose.
||Forêt d'intérêt commercial
||The most commonly produced paper in Canada. Includes: Newsprint, groundwood and freesheet.
||Papier de communication
||The management of forest lands using strategies and practices that increase the productivity of both timber and non-timber resources.
||Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere.
||Reboisement de compensation
||A treatment designed to reduce the competitive effect of undesirable vegetation threatening the success of the regeneration of desirable tree species.
cf. brushing, cleaning
||Lutte contre la concurrence végétale
||In ecology, principle (also known as Gause’s principle) that states no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where they are competing for the same essential resource, and that one species will crowd out the other.
|Composite wood product
||A material produced by gluing together wood elements with a synthetic resin.
||Produit en bois composite
||The proportion of each tree species in a stand expressed as a percentage of the total number, basal area, or volume of all tree species in the stand.
||A mixture of chemical nutrients added to the soil, having a broad array of actions.
||A leaf with two or more leaflets attached to a single leaf stem.
||Reproductive structure of conifers consisting of a central axis covered with scales that are tightly pressed together. At maturity, it contains the seeds.
||Harvesting of cones after seed maturation but before their dispersal.
||Récolte de cônes
||A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device.
||Cueilleur de cônes
||Feeding exclusively on the seeds and cones of conifers.
||Specialized hypha upon which one or more conidia are borne.
||Thin-walled spore produced asexually by certain fungi.
||Member of a group of trees commonly called softwoods or gymnosperms. The word gymnosperm, from the Greek gymnos (naked) and sperma (seed), means "naked-seeded." This refers to the fact that conifer seeds are not contained in fruit tissue. The seeds are instead borne on scales, which are grouped together to form cones. Most conifers have persistent foliage consisting of needles or scales.
||A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed.
||Portable receptacle (pot, bag, or linked spaces) to hold rooting medium for growing planting stock.
||Component materials used in the manufacture of shipping containers and other corrugated board products.
|Continuous boreal forest
||Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees.
||Forêt boréale continue
||Trench made along a contour (i.e., horizontal) line, for the purpose of checking run-off and soil loss, and conserving moisture, in a hillside plantation.
||Labour de niveau
||Setting out of young trees along a contour line.
||Plantation en bandes de niveau
||A change from one silvicultural system to another, also called conversion cut, or from one stand of trees or ecosystem to another, termed species conversion, the silvicultural procedures involved constituting a conversion system.
||Natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts, stool shoots, or root suckers.
||A method of regenerating a forest stand in which the cut trees produce sprouts, suckers, or shoots.
||Régime du taillis
|Coppice selection method
||A coppice method in which only selected shoots of merchantable size are cut at each felling, giving uneven-aged stands.
||A coppice method in which some of the coppice shoots are reserved for the whole of the next rotation, the rest being cut.
||Cutting trees close to ground level with a view to their producing coppice shoots.
||Coupe de rajeunissement
||A small woodlot or forest regularly cut over for regrowth.
||Bosquet de taillis
||Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared.
||Plantation en lignes
||The basal leg segment attached to the thorax and the trochanter bearing the femur.
||Pertaining to organisms that are active during the dim light of dusk or dawn.
||The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop.
||Any tree selected to become or forming a component of the final crop.
||Arbre du peuplement final
||The fertilization of an egg in one plant by a sperm cell found in a pollen grain of another plant. The resulting seed will have the hereditary characteristics from both parents.
|Cross-laminated timber (CLT)
||Large structural panels made of multiple layers of lumber glued together at right angles to each other. Used in walls, floors and roofs; an alternative to concrete and steel systems.
||Panneau lamellé-croisé (CLT)
||The upper part of a tree.
||Trees in a forest with crowns of similar development and occupying a similar position in the canopy; the term applies to groups of trees.
||Classe de cime
|Crown closure class
||Any interval into which the range of proportions of ground area covered by the vertically projected tree crown areas of a stand is divided for classification and use.
||Classe de fermeture du couvert
||The ground area covered by the crowns of trees or woody vegetation as delimited by the vertical projection of crown perimeters and commonly expressed as a percentage of total ground area.
||A fire that advances through the crown fuel layer, the upper part of the tree bearing live branches and foliage.
||Feu de cime
||Public land that is managed by the federal or provincial/territorial government.
||Terre de la Couronne
||1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc.
2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc.
||Taille en cime
||The compaction of slash and brush by machinery. In Manitoba, the chopping of slash and provision of microsites are considered important features of this treatment.
||The preservation of living materials at very low temperatures, often within liquid nitrogen, to protect them against damage.
||Trees or logs or portions thereof that are of merchantable size but are rendered unmerchantable by defects. In nursery practice, a seedling that does not match the grade or specifications.
||A variety of plant cultivated on account of its favourable characteristics for horticulture, forestry or agriculture.
||When the edges of a piece of lumber are raised compared to its middle.
||(Bionaty) Surface tissue layer of the cap of fungi.
(Entomology) Layer of material covering the body of arthropods. This covering is made hard and rigid by the chitin secreted by the epidermis.
||An area of forest land from which some or all timber has recently been cut.
||1. [bouture (n.f.)] A short length cut from a young, living stem, branch, or root, for propagating a whole new plant, in soil or other media.
2. [abattage (n.m.)] The act of cutting down a standing tree.
||The planned interval between partial harvests in an uneven-aged stand.
||System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period.
||A process that removes the inks, coatings and other contaminants from waste papers so that the fibres can be recycled into new products.
||Timber produced from dead standing trees.
More commonly, timber in dead standing trees.
||Decomposition of wood caused by micro-organisms, mostly fungi. The wood generally becomes soft and crumbly, loses density and changes colour.
||Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is characterized mainly by sugar maple-dominated deciduous forests. This is the subarea with the greatest floristic richness.
||Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally.
||Espèce arborescente décidue
||Member of a group of trees commonly called hardwoods or angiosperms. The latter term comes from the Greek "angion (vessel) + "sperma" (seed), denoting the fact that the seed is carried in a fruit. Deciduous trees shed their leaves in autumn.
||Disease that is characterized by a progressive decline in a tree’s health and in its growth and that may kill it. While the causes of this phenomenon are not known, it is generally believed that a combination of factors is to blame: pollution, soil acidification, drought, freeze-thaw action, etc.
||Micro-organisms that break down, digest and metabolize organic wastes, such as dead leaves, dropped fruits, wood and dead animals.
||Refers to gills, folds, tubes or teeth that run down the stem of fungi.
||A surface treatment that loosens compacted soils. In Saskatchewan, termed decompaction.
|Deeply notched leaf
||Leaf that has deep sinuses cut into its outer edge.
||Feuille fortement découpée
||The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides).
||Organism that feeds on the foliage of plants. Eg, insects that feed on and destroy whole leaves or parts of leaves.
||Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially.
||The study of trees; tree identification.
||The transformation of once-productive arid and semi-arid areas into deserts through prolonged drought or continued mismanagement of land and water resources.
||Process of becoming dried out.
|Desirable plant species
||Species that contribute to management objectives.
||Feeding on detritus, decomposing organic matter.
||diameter at breast height (dbh) [diamètre à hauteur de poitrine (dhp)]: The stem diameter of a tree measured at breast height (1.3 m above ground level).
||Removal of all merchantable trees above a specified minimum diameter, which in mixed stands may vary with species. (1)
||Abattage au diamètre limite
||A period of greatly decreased metabolic activity occurring in arthropods. This period may occur during any of various developmental stages depending on the species.
||Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble.
||Plantation au bâton
||Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on.
||Softwood lumber of standardized sizes that is usually 2 inches thick (e.g. 2x4). Used to frame wood buildings like houses.
||The immersion of seedling roots in a solution or water prior to planting.
||Persons employed directly in the following industries: forestry and logging (includes timber tract operations, nurseries and logging), industries involved in support activities for forestry (for example, fire prevention/fighting, reforestation, pest control), and paper manufacturing and wood product manufacturing (includes production of lumber and other wood products).
||Scarification technique using disks to break small slash and the organic layer and to cut vegetation, loosening and incorporating these into the soil.
||Change in the normal colour of wood following infection by a micro-organism.
||Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants.
||Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin.
||Has a high hemicellulose content and can be made from hardwood or softwood tree species. Used mostly for non-paper applications, such as manufacturing rayon and compounds for food and cosmetics.
||Pâte à dissoudre
||Pertaining to organisms that are active during the day.
|DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid
||The molecule that encodes genetic information. It is made up of units called nucleotides, each including one of four bases—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or thymine (T). The molecule comprises two strands held together by bonds between A and T and between G and C, resulting in a structure often referred to as a double helix. It is found in the nucleus of cells, within bacteria and some viruses, as well as in organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts.
||ADN - Acide désoxyribonucléique
||A method to isolate and create images of DNA sequences. The image created is an identification aid for organisms, similar to that of taking human fingerprints.
||Analyse des empreintes génétiques
||The linear order of the nucleotides along the DNA strand. This sequence determines the unique genetic composition of an organism.
||The process of determining the exact order of the bases in a DNA segment.
||Séquençage de l'ADN
||The relative ability of a tree or plant species to dominate a forest ecosystem, given an opportunity equal to that of its associates.
||Potentiel de dominance
||Any tree that is lying on the ground, whether uprooted, stem-broken, or deliberately cut.
||Towing one or more rows of anchor chains, sharkfin barrels, tractor pads, alone or in various combinations, to break up and possibly spread slash and to loosen the forest floor and topsoil or expose mineral soil.
||Scarifiage par traînage
||Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching.
||A mechanical device for sowing seed in furrowed lines (i.e., in drills).
||Semoir en ligne
||Fleshy fruit with a central hard core.
||In tree injection, a method of banding that uses a tight waterproof bandage packed with a chemical, either dry or in paste form.
||Injection à sec
||A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor.
||Detrimental to the genetic quality of a population and future generations.
||A part of an ecoregion characterized by distinctive geologic, soil, water, fauna and land use.
||Process used to determine when a product can display a special seal or mark signifying that it is less harmful to the environment than most other similar products. The two-steps are: establishment of criteria, and certification that a product meets the criteria.
||A part of an ecozone characterized by distinctive regional ecological factors, including climate, physical geography, vegetation, soil, water, fauna and land use.
||The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat.
||The quality of a natural unmanaged or managed ecosystem in which the natural ecological processes sustain the function, composition and structure of the system.
||Intégrité d’un écosystème
||Management systems that attempt to simulate ecological processes with the goal of maintaining a satisfactory level of diversity in natural landscapes and their pattern of distribution in order to ensure the sustainability of forest ecosystem processes.
||A type of tourism that focuses on nature-related experiences (for example, bird watching).
||A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic.
||An area of the Earth's surface representing large and very generalized ecological units characterized by interacting abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors.
||External parasite that lives permanently on the body of a vertebrate or in accessible openings, such as the nose or ears. They are obligate parasites during part of or their entire life cycle. This type of parasite lives on the outside of its host's body without entering it or killing it.
||A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife.
||Habitat de lisière
||Any seedling, whether natural or planted, that has survived in reasonable vigor for some arbitrary time and is so sited that it should make an effective contribution to the crop.
||A laboratory procedure that separates large molecules, such as DNA fragments or proteins, on the basis of their electric charge by running them through a gel placed in an electric field. This is one of the steps in DNA fingerprinting.
||A transformation method in which a weak electric current induces the formation of transient pores in the membrane of a cell, hence allowing new genes to enter the cell.
||Leaf that is a lot longer than it is wide.
||A scleotized fore wing that covers the hind wing like a sheath. Found in Coleoptera.
||A tree whose crown at maturity projects well above the level of the highest canopy.
||Waste substances released into the air or water.
||The surface of wood when it is cut across the growth rings.
||Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels.
||Espèce en voie de disparition
||Organism that lives inside and feeds on a single host, which dies after the parasitoid has completed its larval development.
|Engineered wood products
||A composite wood product made from glued fibre, lumber and/or veneer to meet specific design criteria.
||Produits du bois de haute technologie
||Part of zoology concerned with the study of insects.
||A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs.
|Environmental goods and services
||Benefits humans get directly or indirectly from ecosystem functions. Ecosystem functions are the "…habitat, biological or system properties or processes of ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997). They include clean air and water, soil retention, and wildlife habitat, to name a few.
||Biens et services écologiques [ou environnementaux]
||A protein produced by a living organism and that speeds up a specific biochemical reaction. Enzymes are necessary to make almost all processes occurring in cells fast enough to sustain life.
A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant.
||Tissue covering the aerial portions of a plant.
||The process of developing a crop to the stage at which the young trees may be considered established, i.e., safe from juvenile mortality and no longer in need of special protection or special tending, but only routine cleaning and thinning.
||The time elapsing between the initiation of a new crop and its establishment.
||Favorable to the genetic quality of a population.
||The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters.
||Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years.
||A forest stand or type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees (usually 10–20 years).
||Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method.
|Ex situ conservation
||The preservation of a plant or plant part outside of the species normal or original habitat, for example, within a gene bank.
||Conservation ex situ
||An introduced, non-native tree species.
||Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world.
||A situation in which second-growth forests provide less timber than the original forests.
||A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well.
||Gestion axée sur les espèces
||Raw material, such as forest biomass, used as input in an industrial process to make a product.
||A self-propelled machine used to fell trees by shearing them off near the ground using a hydraulic apparatus. Some models also strip limbs and bunch the logs for later pickup.
||Part of the plant bearing the female sexual organ (pistil).
||Transformation of organic substrates, especially carbohydrates, into chemical intermediates with micro-organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, molds and fungus for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials.
||The union of the nucleus and other cellular constituents of a male gamete (sperm, pollen grain) with those of the female gamete (ovum, egg cell) to form a zygote from which may develop a new organism.
||The application of chemical or organic fertilizers with the objective of increasing the unit area soil productivity.
||A material in which the wood is reduced to predominantly individual fibres by mechanical or chemical means, or a combination of the two. Virgin fibre is derived from trees not previously processed into paper; recycled fibre has been reclaimed from a previous product such as old newsprint and reprocessed and incorporated into a new product.
||Carpet-like mats made from wood-fibre, with a variety of uses, including automotive composite mats and building insulation.
||Tapis de fibres
||Multilayer materials of carbon fibre, steel, glass, natural fibres including hemp, cereal straw, flax with binders (resins) moulded or formed into intermediate products such as building materials, automotive parts and machinery, etc. Distinct properties in each layer produce a composite with a combination of properties.
||Composés renforcés de fibres
||Generally, measure of the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that germinate and produce a seedling, irrespective of subsequent seedling survival.
||Germination au champ
||A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies.
||The planting of trees in areas of inadequate stocking to achieve the desired level of stocking, either in plantations or areas of natural regeneration.
||A tree or species of inferior value, retained in thinning or cleaning, in the absence of any better.
||Remplissage (arbre de)
||The last of a series of progressive regeneration cuts which removes the last of the original seed trees when the regeneration is considered established.
|Fire hazard reduction
||Any treatment of fuels that reduces the threat of ignition and spread of fire.
||Réduction du risque d’incendie
|Fire weather index
||The fire weather index (FWI) is part of an approach that Canadian meteorologists use to estimate the wildfire risk in forest regions. Calculation of the index components is based on consecutive daily observations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and 24-hour rainfall.
||Generally, "First Nations people" is used to describe both Status and Non-Status Indians. "First Nation" has been adopted by some Indian communities to replace the term "Indian band". A band is defined as a body of Indians for whose collective use and benefit lands have been set apart or money is held by the Crown, or declared to be a band for the purposes of the Indian Act. The term is rarely used as a synonym for "Aboriginal peoples" because it usually doesn't include Inuit or Métis people.
||An outer structural element used with other connecting members to make engineered wood products.
||A large rectangular block of wood cut from a log.
||A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||Pertaining to an organism that is associated with flowers. Frequenting flowers without harming them (eg, butterflies).
||The reproductive structure of a tree or other plant consisting of the male and/or female parts.
||All the leaves of a tree.
||Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
||Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern.
||Any novel material derived from forest biomass (particularly wood fibre and cellulosic residues) for industrial use. Forest biomaterials can be blends of natural fibres and polymers (for example, biocomposite building materials) or biopolymers (for example, bioplastics, biotextiles, and nanofibres).
||A plant that uses renewable forest feedstocks (for example, harvest residues, effluent extracts, and black liquors) to integrate the production of conventional forest products with that of value-added bioproducts and bioenergy. A forest biorefinery aims at maximizing the feedstocks’ value by recovering all of the intermediate and end products, hence yielding minimum waste and pollution.
||The study of heredity in forest trees.
||Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting.
||Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations.
||That branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation.
|Forest management unit
||An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc.
||Unité d’aménagement forestier
||A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest.
||Modèle de forêt
||Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands.
|Forest regions classification
||A process of delineating large geographic areas according to landform and climate, associated with broad variations in overall forest composition.
||Classification des régions forestières
||The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources.
||see forest site type
|Forest site classification
||Grouping of forest sites using either the composition or the productivity of the vegetation as well as soil and topographic position.
||Classification de station forestière
|Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
||An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers.
||Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
|Forest tree breeding
||The genetic manipulation of trees, usually involving selection, testing, and controlled mating, to solve some specific problem or to produce a specially desired product.
||Amélioration génétique des arbres forestiers
|Forest tree improvement
||The control of parentage combined with other silvicultural activities (such as site preparation or fertilizing) to improve the overall yield and quality of products from forest lands.
||Amélioration générale des arbres forestiers
|Forest tree species
||Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny
||A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes.
|Forest value chain
||The "chain" of steps in forestry and the manufacturing of forest products from seed to final consumer product.
||Chaîne de valeur forestière
||A community that depends on a forest region for at least 50 percent of its total economy.
||Collectivité dépendante de la forêt
||Subarea of the vast boreal zone characterized by a mosaic of stands of variable density and by tundra consisting mainly of shrubs and lichens. This plant formation is located at the tree line, and marks the division between the boreal zone and the arctic zone.
||Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other.
||Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression.
||General shape of a tree.
||All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established.
||A self-propelled machine, usually self-loading, that transports trees or logs by carrying them completely off the ground.
||Solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel formed in the ground over millions of years from fossilized plant and animal remains exposed to high temperatures and pressures. Petroleum (crude oil), natural gas, and coal are fossil fuels. Fossil fuel reserves are being used much faster than they can rebuild and therefore, are non-renewable resources. The high rate of combustion of fossil fuels in industrialized societies contributes to global warming because natural processes have a limited capacity to absorb the carbon dioxide emitted. (See also carbon sequestration.)
||Oil, gas, coal and other fuels that were formed under the Earth's surface from the fossilized remains of plants and tiny animals that lived millions of years ago.
||Geometric shape with four sides.
||The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging.
||Made from at least 80% chemical pulp, and can be bleached or unbleached and coated or not, depending on desired characteristics. Uses include office paper for printing and copying.
||Papier fin non couché et couché
||Girdling by making a series of downward, more or less overlapping incisions, generally for the introduction of herbicide. Spaced incisions are termed frill cuts. A double series of such incisions is referred to as double-frill girdling.
||Annélation en encoches
||Feeding on fruit or the reproductive structures of plants.
||Reproductive organ of plants that results from fertilization of the flower and contains the seeds.
||A reproductive structure on or in which spores of a fungus are produced.
||syn. fuelwood plantation
Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning.
||Trees used for the production of firewood logs or other wood fuel.
||Bois de chauffage
||Seed showing apparently complete embryo and endosperm or megagametophyte structures, irrespective of actual viability.
||Trees with both parents in common. Defined in Manitoba as trees where both parents are known.
||According to Health Canada, any food or food component demonstrated to have a compound that provides physiological benefits and/or reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond its basic nutritional functions. Functional foods are similar in appearance to or may be conventional foods and are consumed as part of a usual diet.
||Substance used to kill fungi.
||Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores.
||Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases.
||Feeding on fungi.
||Relates to an organism that induces the formation of galls and feeds on their tissues.
||Pertaining to an organism that lives in a gall made by a different insect.
||The change in space and time in the pattern, frequency, size, and successional processes of forest canopy gaps caused by the fall or death of one or more canopy trees.
||Dynamique des trouées
||Conversion of a carbon-rich feedstock (usually solid) to a gas using high temperatures and a limited amount of oxygen.
||A functional portion of a chromosome in which inheritable characteristics are determined by the sequence of nucleotides along the DNA.
||An ex situ conservation facility that stores plant germplasm of various species in the form of pollen, seeds, or tissue culture. Also refers to a database of publicly available DNA sequences.
||Banque de gènes
||The multi-step process in which the coded information in a gene is converted into functional products.
||The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals.
||Combining desired traits, for example, pest resistance and herbicide tolerance, in a genetically modified organism.
||Empilement de gènes
||A universal correspondence rule between a three-nucleotide DNA sequence and a specific amino acid that is used when genes are translated into proteins.
||The genetic variation present in a population or species.
||A method used to directly transfer DNA from one organism into another that results in a genetically engineered organism, one form of genetically modified organism.
||A representation of the relative locations of genes along a chromosome marked with probes and/or genetic markers.
||A DNA fragment of known location on the genome that is used to mark specific genes or traits.
|Genetically modified organism (GMO)
||An organism that has had its DNA sequence altered through genetic engineering, a natural process, or the action of mutagens.
||Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM)
||The complete genetic material in a particular organism. In animals, this includes the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA; in plants, this includes the nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast's DNA.
||The study of an organism’s DNA sequence and the location of genes on its chromosomes (structural genomics) and of the function of an organism’s genes in relation to their products under particular environmental conditions (functional genomics).
||An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable genetic characteristics.
|Geographic Information System (GIS)
||An organized collection of computer hardware, software and geographic data designed for capturing, storing, updating, manipulating, analyzing and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.
||Système d'information géographique (SIG)
||Living in or on the ground.
||A test made to determine the viability of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample.
||Essai de germination
||The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample that actually germinate, irrespective of time. In any batch of seeds, the percentage that is pure (of the species required) multiplied by the germinative capacity.
||The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample germinating within a given period e.g., 7 or 14 days, under optimum or stated conditions.
||The total set of genes of an individual representing a variety or species that may be used for conservation purposes.
||Plate-shaped membrane located under the cap of a fungus; all of the gills together form the hymenium.
||Destruction of tissue (water conducting system) in a ring around a tree.
||1. Silviculture: Making more or less continuous incisions around a living stem, through at least both bark and cambium, generally with the object of killing the trees.
||Lacking hairs or down.
|Global Positioning System (GPS)
||A system of satellites and receiving devices used to compute positions on the Earth.
||Système de positionnement global (GPS)
||The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect.
|Glue-laminated timber (Glulam)
||A structural product made of multiple pieces of lumber glued together in a desired form. Used in non-residential structural applications, often as part of architectural or aesthetic design.
||Smaller boards glued or joined together to make larger or longer pieces of wood for structural and non-structural uses.
||The assignment of products into different categories based on standard visual appearance characteristics or factors that limit strength .
||n: A plant that has been grafted.
v: To place a detached cutting or branch tip (scion) in close cambial contact with a rooted plant (understock) in such a manner that scion and rootstock unite.
||The direction in which the majority of cells in wood are oriented; wood has different properties "with" or "against" the grain.
||Geological formation that dates back more than 450 million years and is characterized by vast expanses of granite of volcanic origin. The Canadian Shield is made up largely of granite bedrock. Since granite has little capacity to neutralize acid rain, the forest ecosystems in these regions are fairly vulnerable to the effects of acid deposition.
||Feeding on seeds.
||A handling tool suspended from the end of the boom, consisting of a downward-turned clamp that is opened to pick up the stems or logs and then closed to lift and deposit them further away.
||Chemical processes, products, and technologies that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment and that incorporate energy efficient methods, the use of renewable feedstocks, and other such considerations in their design.
||Increasing the fertility of soil by raising suitable herbaceous crops on it, particularly Fabaceae, but also Cruciferae and Gramineae, and digging or ploughing them while succulent, with or without supplementary fertilizers.
|Green tree cut
||Harvesting that retains live trees of a specific species and size on the area to be cut to achieve a site-specific objective.
||Coupe avec réserves
||The warming of the Earth's atmosphere caused by increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other gases in the air, which trap the sun's heat within the atmosphere.
||Effet de serre
|Greenhouse gas (GHG)
||A gas—such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone—that is transparent to incoming solar radiation but less so to the infrared radiation reflected back by the Earth’s surface, hence trapping part of the solar energy and warming the planet’s surface enough to sustain life. The build-up of greenhouse gases from industrial activities enhances the natural “greenhouse effect” and is partly responsible for global warming.
||Gaz à effet de serre (GES)
|Greenhouse gas sinks
||Any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases or their precursors from the atmosphere. The principal natural mechanism is photosynthesis.
||Puits de gaz à effet de serre
|Greenhouse gas source
||Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide.
||Source de gaz à effet de serre
|Gross domestic product (GDP)
||The total value of all goods and services produced within Canada during a given year.
||Produit intérieur brut (PIB)
||Made from at least 20% mechanical pulp, and can be bleached or unbleached and coated or not, depending on desired characteristics. Uses include higher quality coloured printing and magazines.
||Papier de pâte mécanique non couché et couché
||A shelterwood system in which the canopy is opened, by group cutting, so as to create fairly evenly distributed gaps which are enlarged by subsequent cuttings.
||Système des coupes progressives par trouées
||Setting out young trees in groups.
||Plantation par bouquets
||A method of regenerating and maintaining uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups.
||Jardinage par bouquets
||All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume.
||Matériel sur pied
||Any agent present or provided as a supplement to the plant or its environment to activate growth.
||Déclencheur de croissance
||A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild.
||Gestion par association
||The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species.
||Small knobbed structure representing the hind wings in dipterans.
||Series of small hooks found in some insects that anchor the hind wings to the fore wings during flight.
||Removing the undesirable species inhibiting the growth of valued species manually.
||Seed having coats that resist cracking or breaking and may be more or less impermeable to water.
||A snag composed primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable.
||Preparing seedlings or rooted cuttings for planting by gradually reducing water, nutrients, or day length, or by increasing light intensity and thus inducing changes in shoots that make them more resistant to exposure to full sunlight.
|Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees)
||Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees.
||Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
||A short beam over a structural opening such as a door or window.
||Temporary storage of seedlings by burial of root systems in a trench.
||Mise en jauge
||Feeding on blood.
||One of the main components of wood, hemicellulose is a sugar that can be used as fuel or converted into other bioproducts, including sweeteners.
||Produits à base d’hémicellulose
||Incomplete metamorphosis in which there is no pupal stage. The larvae, also called nymphs, are inactive and resemble the adults.
||Any chemical preparation used to kill or inhibit the growth of forbs, grasses, woody plants, and their seeds.
||Capable of surviving and recovering from the application of herbicides.
||Tolérant aux herbicides
||That portion of the character variance due to hereditary factors as distinct from factors of environment. Heritability is described in one of two ways, depending on the type of investigation.
||A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species.
||Feeding occasionally on seeds and cones, but usually lives and feeds on stems and needles.
||A place or material in which young insect larvae hide during the winter.
||Sleeplike stage in which an organism's metabolism is reduced to its lowest level.
||Crops and stands of trees, generally of seedling origin, that normally develop a high closed canopy. A term originally used to differentiate the natural, essentially seedling forest of long rotation from the artificial.
||A partial harvest removing only the most valuable species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand.
||Silvicultural systems in which the crops are normally of seedling origin, natural and/or artificial, and the rotation is, traditionally at least, long.
||Régime de la futaie
||An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation.
||Futaie avec sur-réserves
||Reducing wood to coarse chips, for fuel or the manufacture of wood pulp and wood chipboard.
||Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting.
||Plantation sur potets
||Broad brush approach based on a theory according to which a whole cannot be analyzed without considering the sum of its parts or reduced to discrete elements.
||Complete metamorphosis in which a pupal stage occurs between the larval stage and the adult form. The pupa is inactive and looks very different from the adult.
||The area in which an animal lives, hunts, and mates throughout its life.
||Organism harbouring a parasite.
|Household and sanitary paper
||Made for various uses around the home and for industrial and commercial purposes. Household papers include facial tissues, toilet paper, hand towels and napkins. Sanitary papers include products like baby diapers, adult incontinence products and sanitary napkins.
||Papier à usage domestique et sanitaire
||Living in or on humus or leaf litter.
||A general term for the more or less decomposed (plant and animal) residues in the soil, litter therefore being excluded.
||Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants.
||The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species).
||Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species.
||Parasitic organism that lives off of another parasite.
||Organism that attacks and lives on another parasitoid.
||One of many filaments that make up the mycelium or body of a fungus.
||Reduced virulence in a micro-organism caused by genetic mutation or the presence of a virus.
||Structural wood products joined in the shape of an I. An alternative to dimension lumber in floor joists (supports) and roof rafters that uses 50% less wood.
||Poutre en I
||The adult sexually mature stage in the life cycle of an insect after metamorphosis.
||In even-aged management, those trees or stands that have grown past the regeneration stage but are not yet mature. In uneven-aged management, established trees too young for commercial harvest.
||An individual of any value actually impeding the development of another individual of higher grade.
||A cutting made in a stand past the sapling stage, primarily to improve composition and quality through the removal of less desirable trees of any species.
||Within an artificial environment, such as a test tube, as opposed to in vivo.
||Within a natural environment, such as a living organism, as opposed to in vitro.
||The increase in diameter, basal area, height, volume, quality, or value of individual trees or stands during a given period. (5)
|Industrial plantation forestry
||Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc.
||The use of a new idea, material or technology to produce new goods or services or to change the way in which goods or services are produced or distributed. Innovation can include improved managerial systems, new production techniques, new technology, the results of research and development, or the application of information technologies.
||Invertebrate animal that has six legs.
||Any chemical or biological preparation used to kill or disrupt the development of insects.
|Integrated landscape management (ILM)
||The integrated planning and assessment of land uses and human activities over whole landscapes to ensure the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of ecosystems and their resources. It is applied at appropriate temporal and spatial scales necessary to achieve multiple management objectives.
||Aménagement intégré du paysage (AIP)
|Integrated pest management
||The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method.
||Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
|Integrated resource management
||A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity.
||Gestion intégrée des ressources
||Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut.
||An agroforestry system involving the cultivation of agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun between rows (or other arrangements) of trees or shrubs. (See also sun system.)
||Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period.
||Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age.
||A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting.
|Irregular shelterwood system
||see shelterwood cutting
||Système des coupes progressives irrégulières
||see stocking: partially stocked
||Matériel relatif irrégulier
||A root, especially a seedling tap root, having a sharp bend greater than 90, shaped like a J. Frequently introduced by inappropriate planting.
||Racine en J
||The fabrication of connections between wooden elements by woodworking techniques or the use of metal connectors.
||A horizontal support member typically smaller in cross-section than a beam; often uses dimension lumber or I-beams.
||Organic liquid contained in certain plant and animal structures, eg, plant sap.
||An inner layer of xylem surrounding the pith, in which the cells are smaller and/or less structurally developed than those of the outer xylem. The period during which it is formed is termed the juvenile period; it varies between individuals
||Bois de jeunesse
||A chamber having controlled air flow, temperature and relative humidity, which is used for drying lumber, veneer and other wood products.
||Séchoir à bois
||Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L.
||plantation avec fentes en L
||Have an adhesive on one side and are often coated on the other, for uses such as weight and price labels at grocery store.
||Fuels that provide vertical continuity between the surface fuels and crown fuels in a forest stand, thus contributing to the ease of torching and crowning, for example, tall shrubs, small-sized trees, bark flakes, tree lichens.
||A beam consisting of two or more layers of wood, glued, nailed or otherwise bonded together, with the grain going in the same direction.
|Laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
||A structural material made of multiple layers of veneer glued together under heat and pressure. A substitute for dimension lumber.
||Bois en placage stratifié (LVL)
||Extra leader growth extension late in the growing season.
||Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics.
||Immature stage (between the egg and the pupa) in insects that undergo complete metamorphosis before becoming adults.
||Tube or sheath made by a larva as its shelter.
||The placement of prepared elements into the desired form before pressing.
||The rooting of an undetached branch, lying on or partially buried in the soil, or surrounded by moist fiber sealed in a plastic wrap (air layering), termed a layer, which is capable of independent growth after separation from the parent plan.
||Regeneration of a forest stand using layerings.
||Méthode du marcottage
||Process in which soluble substances in the soil are removed by the movement of water.
||Organ in plants that has various forms (needles, scales, etc.) and that carries on photosynthesis, producing energy for life.
||Normal shedding of leaves in the fall.
||Insect that folds a leaf in two to make a shelter for hiding or feeding.
||Organism that hides and feeds inside a leaf or the tip of a leaf that it has rolled-up into a cigar-shaped tube.
||Organism that ties two or more leaves together with silk threads, forming a tube in which to hide and feed.
||A strip of timber left standing between two clearcut areas.
||A tree (marked to be) left standing in an area where other trees are felled.
||Arbre marqué en réserve
||Organism consisting of a fungus (mycellium) and an alga (green alga cells) living in association. Lichens have a high tolerance for cold, drought and heat. They should not be confused with mosses, which are chlorophyll-containing plants.
||An algae and a fungus growing in symbiotic association on solid surfaces such as rocks or tree bark.
||Loosening and removing a plant from the ground as typically practised in nurseries.
|Lifting the canopy
||Removing the lower constituents of a canopy, e.g., the lowest undergrowth, shrubs, and small trees in a multistoried forest, mainly to assist the main crop, particularly for regeneration, but also for readier access.
||Élagage de dégagement
|Light framing lumber
||Lumber that is 5 to 10 cm thick and 5 to 10 cm wide. It is used in a large variety of general construction applications.
||Bois à charpente légère
||Growing in or on wood.
||Main component of wood.
||A complex and relatively hydrophobic biopolymer present in the secondary cell walls of vascular plants—and particularly abundant in wood—that gives rigidity to plant stems and allows them to conduct water efficiently.
||Transplanting seedlings or rooted cuttings in rows in a nursery bed.
||Repiquage en ligne
||Also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol. It is formed in the destructive distillation of wood or made synthetically, and used especially as an alternative fuel, a gasoline additive, a solvent, an antifreeze, or a denaturant for ethyl alcohol.
||Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor.
||The burning of green slash progressively as it is cut.
||A rough but convenient index of the ability of a tree's crown to nourish the remaining part of the tree; it is the percentage of length of stem having living branches. L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L.
||Taux de cime vivante
|Living modified organism (LMO)
||As defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
||Organisme vivant modifié (OVM)
||Large division of a leaf.
||General term comprising wounds resulting from cutting, breakage, or crushing of trees that resulted from the felling and the removal of trees designated for cutting.
May also include scoring of site and soil leading to exposure
||Dommage de coupe
||Trunk or large limbs of a felled tree. Used for log homes, solid wood and pulp products.
|Lop and top
||The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen.
||Chopping branches, tops, and small trees after felling into lengths such that the resultant slash will lie close to the ground.
||Subarea of the arctic zone characterized by the absence of trees, continuous permafrost and tundra vegetation consisting of shrubs, herbaceous plants (mainly grasses), mosses and lichens.
||The southern part of present-day Québec, existing as a separate British province from 1791 to 1840.
||Wood processed in a sawmill.
||Wood of different sizes for different end-uses.
||Produits de bois d’oeuvre
|Machine stress rated (MSR)
||Softwood dimension lumber mechanically tested for strength. Used for engineered wood products such as roof trusses.
||Bois classé par contrainte mécanique
||Whitish larva that resembles a worm and has no legs (example : fly larva).
||In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting.
||Part of the plant bearing the male sexual organ (stamen).
||Four-legged vertebrate of the class Mammalia, characterized by females that produce milk with which to feed their young.
||A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies.
||Commonly the dung of farm animals. Also natural or artificial food material for plants and trees, supplying nitrogen, phosphates, and potash and other essential nutrients.
||syn. marking axe, marking cog. A light hammer having a die for stamping letters, figures, or other distinctive devices.
||Means of standardizing marking practice among individuals and for various areas of the same forest type, commonly for thinning purposes.
||Règle de marquage
||In even-aged management, those trees or stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable and that are at or near rotation age (includes overmature trees and stands for which an overmature class has not been recognized.
||Trees or stands grouped according to their stage of development, from establishment to suitability for harvest. A maturity class may comprise one or more age classes.
||Classe de maturité
||Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation.
||Made from wood fibres ground into very fine particles. Used to make newsprint and some other communications papers.
|Medium density fibreboard (MDF)
||A wood-based composite material that uses wood fibre rather than particles, strands or veneers to produce board or sheet products. It is made by combining wood fibre with a synthetic resin or other bonding system and applying pressure and heat to create a compressed fibreboard with a density ranging from 0.60 to 0.80 g/cm3. MDF is increasingly used in areas such as furniture manufacture, cabinetry, joinery, shelving, craftwork and flooring.
||Panneau de fibres à densité moyenne (MDF)
||Of a tree or stand that has attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Does not imply accessibility, economic or otherwise.
||A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting.
||Starting, intermediate, or product compound in a chemical reaction that involves the breaking down of a molecule or the joining of molecules by an enzyme.
||All of the changes that an insect undergoes from the egg stage to adult form.
||A microscopic one or multi-celled organism, such as a bacterium, virus, yeast, alga, fungus and protozoan.
||Living organisms (bacteria, microbes, yeasts) that can be seen only with a microscope. Micro-organisms that are likely to cause disease in other living organisms are called pathogens.
||Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna.
||A genetic engineering technique that uses a fine-tipped glass needle to inject DNA into a cell.
||A general term for a unicellular or multicellular microscopic organism. Classifications of microorganisms include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.
||In vitro asexual reproduction of a plant from a fragment of plant tissue. This technique creates multiple copies of progeny that are genetically identical to the parent (clones).
||The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment.
||Gallery excavated by a larva in plant tissues, such as a leaf or bark.
||Organism that feeds inside the blade of a leaf, between the epidermal layers, or beneath the bark of plants, by first excavating a mine into these tissues.
||A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands.
||Forêt de brouillard
||An irrigation technique for rooting cuttings where water, with or without fertilizers, is sprayed in minute drops on the plants.
||Acarian that feeds on plant or animal matter.
||Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is dominated by mixed forests encompassing both coniferous boreal species and more southerly deciduous species.
||A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species.
The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%.
cf. pure stand
||Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands.
||Site preparation technique involving rotating tillers or other devices that mix soil and surface organic material with fine debris.
||A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis.
||In vitro techniques that are rapid, efficient, and precise in obtaining novel gene combinations in living organisms. Most modern biotechnologies focus on organisms at the genetic level. (See also traditional biotechnology.)
||See genetic marker.
||1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes.
2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically.
||Organism that feeds on a single host, whether plant or animal.
|Montréal Criteria and Indicators Process
||This global initiative was so named because the first meeting sponsored by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in Montreal. Currently, 12 countries representing 90% of the world's boreal and temperate forests have agreed to collaborate to develop national C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of all boreal and temperate forests.
||Processus de Montréal sur les critères et les indicateurs
||The act of extinguishing a fire after it has been brought under control.
||Form and structure of living organisms.
||Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting.
||Shaped lengths of wood or composite material used in decorative applications, such as crown moulding where walls meet ceilings, or baseboard moulding where walls meet floors.
||Process whereby arthropods shed their old cuticle (external covering) and replace it with a new one.
||Setting out young trees on raised microsites.
||Plantation sur butte
||Any loose covering on the surface of the soil, whether natural, like litter, or deliberately applied, like organic residues, crushed gravel, or artificial material like plastic, glass-wool, metal foil, and paper, used to reduce competing vegetation.
|Multiple forest use
||A system of resource use where the forest resources in a given land unit serve more than one user.
||Utilisation intégrée de la forêt
||Visible reproductive part of any of various fungi.
||Champignon de sol
||Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light.
||A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced.
||Vegetative part of a fungus, which is composed of a mass of hyphae and distinct from the fruiting body.
||Feeding on fungi
||Feeding on fungi.
||Nano structures made from pure cellulose used in coating, papermaking, drug delivery, biocide dispersion, composite products, etc.
||The manufacture of materials and structures with dimensions that measure up to 100 nanometers (billionths of a metre).
|National forest strategy
||An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981.
||Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
||A species that occurs naturally in an area.
||Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering.
||Feeding on dead or decomposing animal matter.
||Alteration of tissues caused by the death of cells.
||Sweet liquid produced by special glands in flowers (called nectaries) to attract insects.
||Feeding on nectar.
||Long, narrow reduced leaf found in conifers.
||Reddening or browning of needles, sometimes leading to premature shedding of foliage.
||Living in and feeding on needles.
|Needles borne in clusters (or bundles)
||Group of needles joined together at the base
||Aiguille en faisceau
||Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot.
||Plantation en nids
||Relates to an organism that spins a silk nest or tent in order to hide or feed.
||A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands.
||All expenditures made on buildings, engineering, construction, machinery and equipment (including imports of used machinery and equipment) for the current time period. Investment in buildings includes transfer costs on the sale of existing assets (for example, real estate commissions).
||Made from mechanical pulp. Used mostly to make newspapers.
||The unique environment used to sustain the existence of an organism or species.
||Globulose or elongated mass formed by certain fungi or a mixture of plant and fungal tissues.
|Non-commercial tree species
||A tree species for which there is currently no market.
||Essence forestière non commerciale
||People who consider themselves Indians or members of a First Nation but whom the Government of Canada does not recognize as Indians under the Indian Act.
||Indiens non inscrits
||An economic, political, administrative or legal impediment to trade other than a duty, tax or import quota.
||Barrières non tarifaires
|Non-timber forest products
||Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc.
||Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
||A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values.
||Valeurs non ligneuses
|Northern bleached hardwood kraft (NBHK)
||Made from northern hardwood species. Used to make a wide variety of products, from communication papers to tissue and paper towels.
||Pâte kraft blanchie de feuillus de l’hémisphère Nord (NBHK)
|Northern bleached softwood kraft (NBSK)
||Made from northern softwood species that grow in temperate forests. Used to make a wide variety of products, from communication papers to packaging and tissue and towel products.
||Pâte kraft blanchie de résineux de l’hémisphère Nord (NBSK)
||The building blocks of DNA (and RNA), each containing one nitrogenous base—adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine (uracil in RNA)— a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA).
||A complex spherical body found in most plant, animal, and fungal cells; it is enclosed by a membrane and contains chromosomes.
||A dead or downed log that fosters tree seedlings by protecting them from such environmental factors as wind, insolation, or frost, or by providing appropriate soil and microclimate.
||An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries.
cf. field nursery
||One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put.
||Fruit, small nut.
||According to Health Canada, a product isolated or purified from foods (including from specific forest-based foods) that is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease. Nutraceuticals are usually sold in medicinal forms, not as foods, and are generally considered part of the vitamin and pharmaceutical market.
||Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots.
||Synonym of the pupa or chrysalis stage found in insects with complete metamorphosis. The nymph is the final instar before the adult form. Nymphs are inactive and do not feed. Synonym of the larva in insects that go through incomplete metamorphosis. The nymph changes directly into the adult without going through a pupal stage; the nymph feeds and moves around. The term nymph is also used to describe the immature stages of acarians.
||The process of healing of cut branch stubs by the cambium of the surrounding stem surface.
||An area of cleared open land no longer used for cultivation or pasture which may be in the process of reverting to forest.
||A stand of mature or overmature trees relatively uninfluenced by human activity.
||Première venue, de
||An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community.
||Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
||Able to thrive in areas of abundant rainfall.
||Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests.
||Considerable reduction of canopy density, e.g., by lopping, felling, or herbicidal treatment of selected trees, or naturally through pests, disease, or drought mortality.
||Ouverture du couvert
||Potential woody biomass resources available for salvage following natural disturbances—for example, wood damaged by insect pests such as the mountain pine beetle, by disease, or by fire or wind — or forestry activities — for example, small-diameter or other trees left standing. In some cases, harvesting and construction residues are also viewed as opportunity wood.
||Taxonomic level between Class and Family. In insects, for example, classification in orders is based primarily on wing shape.
||Group of tissues organized to perform a distinct function.
|Oriented strand board (OSB)
||A structural panel made of strands or flakes of wood glued and pressurized together and oriented in different directions to achieve desired properties. Used as a load-bearing component in residential buildings.
||Panneau de copeaux orientés (OSB)
|Oriented strandboard (OSB)
||A panel made from wood strands oriented in the face layers and normally cross-oriented in the core layer, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. Orienting the strands greatly increases the bending stiffness and strength of the panels.
||Panneau de particules orientées
||A seedling, transplant, or cutting ready to be established on an area.
||Plant sur le terrain
||In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage.
||The uppermost continuous layer of a vegetation cover, for example the tree canopy in a forest ecosystem or the uppermost layer of a shrub stand.
||A final harvest in which the cutting releases advance regeneration.
||Suppression de l’étage dominant
||A form of oxygen (O3) formed naturally in the upper atmosphere by a photochemical reaction with solar ultraviolet radiation and a major agent in the formation of smog.
||Thicker and stronger paper sheets used to wrap or contain materials and goods for storage and transport.
||A low-pressure hand tool for squirting a distinctive mark of paint on trees and timber.
||Sheets of wood or fibres glued together under heat and pressure.
||Sheets of material produced from wood pulp. Has many uses, including for writing or printing on and packaging.
||Organism that lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or animal (host). The parasite gradually weakens the host and may or may not kill it.
||An organism that lives at the expense of another (its host); impedes its growth and eventually kills it. Insect parasitoids, which are often very tiny, attack a single organism (plant or animal); from which they derive everything they need for their own growth and reproduction. One way a parasitoid does this is by laying its eggs in the body of the host insect. Parasitoids are being used more and more for biological control of insect pests, thus reducing the need for chemical insecticides. Predators, unlike parasitoids, prey on more than one organism and kill and consume their tissues.
||Form of reproduction in which an organism develops from an unfertilized egg.
||Removal of only part of a stand for purposes other than regenerating a new age class.
||Any cutting in which only part of the stand is harvested.
||A small element produced mechanically from wood. Particles can be further subdivided based on their geometry into categories or types such as chips, flakes, shavings, sawdust and slivers. Particle dimensions are typically 25 mm or less along the grain direction and of varying widths and thicknesses.
||Particules de bois
|Particle gun transformation
||Transformation par canon à particules
||A panel made from wood particles, which are often the residue from other wood processing operations, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. It differs from fibreboard in that the wood particles are larger than fibres.
||Panneau de particules
||Burning felling debris, grass, etc. in patches for the purpose of preparing sites for group planting or sowing.
||Brûlage par placettes
||A silvicultural system that creates openings less than one hectare in size and is designed to manage each opening as a distinct even-aged opening.
||Coupe par trouées
||A modification of the clearcutting system developed in the Pacific Coast region of North America, whereby patches of about 5 to 200 ha are logged as single units, separated for as long as practicable.
||Exploitation par blocs
||A mechanized implement used to expose patches of mineral soil in a systematic pattern.
||Scarificateur de placeaux
||A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial.
||Living or dead agent that alters the normal functions of a whole plant or part of a plant.
||A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease.
||The study of disease.
||Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants.
||Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils.
||Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet.
||The part(s) of forest allocated for regeneration (the regeneration block) or other treatment during a specified period. (3)
||Affectation de régénération
||Flask-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (ascus and ascospores).
||Permanently frozen ground comprised of an active layer of soil overlying a layer of ice that varies in thickness. Permafrost is completely impervious to water because it does not thaw, although the active layer does thaw seasonally.
||A perennially frozen soil horizon.
||Characteristic of evergreen trees, that is, trees that do not shed their leaves in the fall.
||Any organism, whether insect, pathogen, mammal, or competing vegetation, capable of causing damage to a forest crop.
||Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs.
||A heritable trait that enables an organism (e.g., a tree) to be less damaged by pests compared to its non-resistant relatives.
||Résistance aux ravageurs
||Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal.
||In bacteriology, a shallow, flat-bottomed, transparent vessel that consists of two round rimmed plates one overlapping the other as a cover, for micro-organisms and tissue cells culture.
||Boîte de Pétri
||A chemical made from petroleum, natural gas, or other fossilized hydrocarbons. (See also fossil fuel.)
||A highly complex organic compound that exists in every plant in various mixes, ratios and concentrations. Phenols include, for example, many plant pigments.
||The study of timing of periodic phenomena, such as flowering, growth initiation, growth cessation, etc., especially as related to seasonal changes in temperature, photoperiod, etc.
||An organism as observed, i.e., as judged by its visually perceptible characters resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. Identical phenotypes do not necessarily breed alike.
||A chemical substance released by animals, including insects, that influences the behaviour or development of other individuals of the same species, for example, sexual attractants.
||The part of the tree that is produced through the growth of cambium cells in an outward direction. It may also be called secondary phloem. The sap produced by the leaves travels through the phloem tissue downwards in the tree. Compared with the xylem (wood) the phloem occupies a very small part of the tree.
||Formation of carbohydrates in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light.
||Feeding on the leaves of plants.
||Taxonomic level between Kingdom and Class. Eg, phyllum Arthropoda composed of organisms with a segmented body. The body wall is more or less hardened and forms an exoskeleton.
||Refers to organisms that feed on plants.
||The area of foothills at the edge of a range of mountains, which represents the transition between mountain and plain. The Foothills of Alberta are an example of a piedmont.
||Piedmont (ou piémont)
||Relates to an organism that has specialized mouthparts for sucking the fluids from plants, thereby causing deformities or killing the affected plant sections.
||Slash disposal whereby coarse woody debris are gathered into windrows or isolated piles.
||Mise en andain
||Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species.
||A species adapted to early stages of natural forest succession or growth on newly available sites.
||One of many cavities or depressions on the fruiting body of morels.
||Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture.
||Plantation sur trous
||Thin pieces of wood generated when dried lumber is planed smooth prior to shipping.
||Particule de rabotage
||A wave in the atmospheric circulation, in one of the principal zones of the westerly winds, characterized by a great length and a significant amplitude.
||An operation consisting of giving a uniform width and thickness to sawn wood while removing as much as possible any surface irregularities caused by previous operations.
||A flat, box-type container in which plants are raised.
|Plant with novel traits (PNT)
||In accordance with the Seeds Regulations, Part V related to the Seeds Act administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, a plant variety possessing a characteristic that is intentionally selected or created through a specific genetic change and is either not previously associated with a distinct and stable population of the plant species in Canada or expressed outside the normal range of a similar existing characteristic in the plant species.
||Végétal à caractères nouveaux (VCN)
||Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing.
||Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand.
||Foresterie de plantation
||Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area.
||A motorized auger used to create planting holes.
||A long-handled, tapered spade used to make narrow, deep holes for young plants of tap-rooted tree species.
||Bêche à planter
||Special devices of varying complexity which make holes by compression and either set or shoot a containerized seedling into the soil.
||Plantoir à pistolet
||Specially designed machine that cuts a narrow trench through the soil in which seedling roots are inserted and then held in place by closing of the trench.
||The exact spot where a young tree has been set out.
||Emplacement des semis
||Seedlings, transplants, cuttings, and occasionally wildlings, for use in planting.
||Matériel de reproduction
||A small circle of bacterial DNA that is used as a vector to transfer genes from one organism to another. Plasmids have the ability to replicate independently within a host.
||The typical residential construction method in North America, using wood for both vertical and horizontal support; stacks each floor on the completed floor beneath it for support.
||Charpente à plate-forme
||Operation designed to loosen compacted soils and/or to pull the roots of unwanted plants out of the ground by means of single- or double-moldboard ploughs or special shaping devices pulled by a tractor, bulldozer, or similar equipment.
||A small container seedling which is to be planted and raised as a bare-root seedling.
||Containing several nuclei.
||A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees.
||A phenotype judged (but not proved by testing) to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities.
||A structural panel made of multiple layers of wood veneers glued together with the grain of each layer perpendicular to that of the next. Used as a structural, load-bearing component of buildings.
|Pocket of infection
||Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated.
||A tree between a sapling and small sawtimber size. Size varies by region, e.g., for boreal and eastern forests 12-20 cm dbh.
||The systematic harvest cutting of pollard shoots, with due provision for replacing exhausted or defective pollards.
||Taillis sur têtards
||Cutting back the crown of a tree (removal of dead, diseased or unwanted branches).
||Transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same species, resulting in fertilization.
||Feeding on pollen.
||The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species.
||Any natural or synthetic compound of high molecular weight composed of numerous repeated simple subunits (monomers) sharing pairs of electrons. Examples include plastics and high-strength fibres. (See also biopolymer.)
|Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
||A laboratory procedure that provides the conditions for rapid replication of a specific DNA segment, resulting in a very high number of copies of that segment. PCR makes a DNA segment easier to analyze for genetic research, forensics, the diagnosis of diseases, or other applications.
||Réaction en chaîne de la polymérase (PCR)
||Feeding on several plant or animal species. Organism that develops on more than one host, eg, the gypsy moth, a polyphagous caterpillar feeds on both deciduous and coniferous trees.
||A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time.
||A vertical support member of a minimum 5½ inches in its cross-section dimension.
||A traditional method of creating structures using precisely fitted and joined timbers, usually secured by wooden pegs.
||Poteau et poutre
||Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed.
||Plantation en pot
||Cutting in an immature crop or stand to improve crop spacing and to accelerate the diameter increment of favoured trees, and/or improve the average form of the trees that remain. Does not yield trees of commercial value.
||Silvicultural treatment that consists in freeing trees that have good growth potential from competition by cutting the lower quality stems that are competing with them.
||Organism that hunts, captures and kills several types of prey (insects and acarians) over the course of its development.
||A tree whose crown has grown above the general level of the upper canopy.
||The germination of seed, generally to the stage when the radicle is just emerging, before sowing in the field or nursery.
||Removing trees near the end of a rotation so as to permanently open the canopy and enlarge the crowns of seed bearers, with a view to improving conditions for seed production and natural regeneration, as typically in shelterwood systems.
||Larval stage before pupation during which the insect stops eating and prepares for the pupal stage by making a cocoon, a shelter or attaching itself to an object with silk threads.
||The knowledgeable application of fire to a specific land area to accomplish predetermined forest management or other land use objectives.
||The species to which the silviculture of a mixed forest is primarily directed, either for its (or their) economic or protective value.
||A short DNA fragment, radioactively or otherwise labeled, used to locate a specific complementary sequence of DNA or RNA.
||Tube-shaped mouthpart used by insects to suck nectar from flowers or suck other liquid food.
||The rate of production of wood of given specifications, by volume or weight, for a given area.
cf. site capability
||The offspring of a particular tree or a combination of one female and one male tree.
||A test in which the genetic constitution of an individual is evaluated from the performance of its progeny produced by some specific mating system.
||Test de descendance
||A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives.
||Zone / aire protégée
||All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental.
||Forêt de protection
||A functional organic macromolecule assembled from amino acids linked with peptide bonds; a product of gene expression.
||A legally binding sub-agreement of a framework convention or treaty.
||Single-celled animal-like microorganisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protozoa play an important role in the ecology of aquatic and soil environments, where they are omnipresent.
||1. The geographical area and environment to which the parent trees, etc., are native and within which their genetic constitution has been developed through natural selection.
2. The geographical source, i.e., place of origin.
||An experiment, usually replicated, comparing trees grown from seed or cuttings collected from many parts of a species, natural range.
||Test de provenance
||1. The removal of live branches from standing trees, termed green pruning; or of dead branches, dry pruning.
2. Removal of live or dead branches from ground level to as high as a person's reach (2.0-2.5 m) in a young stand.
||Removal of branches from a tree, particularly beneath the crown.
||A saw specially designed to prune standing trees.
||Scie à élaguer
||Wood chips that have been ground mechanically into fibres and are used for the production of inexpensive paper, such as newsprint, or that have been chemically treated to remove the lignin and are used to manufacture higher quality papers.
||Papermaking pulp moulded into packaging materials that snugly fit or separate fragile articles. Used for products such as egg cartons, domestic and utility trays, and bottle protectors.
||Produits moulés en pâte et papier
||Pertaining to the stage between the larval stage and the adult in insects.
||Process whereby a larva tranforms into a pupa and later emerges as a mature insect.
||Spherical or flask-shaped structure (resembles a perithecium, but is asexual) within which conidia are formed.
||A small, clearly demarcated sample area of known size on which observations are made.
||Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center.
||Plantation en quinconces
||A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit.
||Living on or in roots. A parasite of roots.
||A sloped structural member of either dimension lumber on edge or timber, used as part of a roof support.
||Forest that occurs in an area of high rainfall. Rainforests are usually found near the sea or in mountainous regions that receive a great deal of rain. Tropical forests are generally rainforests.
||Site preparation technique using a bulldozer or similar equipment with a blade having teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large, coarse woody debris and rocks off a site and leaving smaller stones, soil, and small finer slash.
||Abnormally large branches that project at sharp acute angles from the bole and are persistent (often associated with previous weevil attack).
||DNA constructed by joining DNA segments from two or more organisms. (See genetic engineering.)
||Made from paper and packaging material. Used to manufacture new communication papers, packaging and paper towels.
||syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding.
||Création de forêt
||Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high.
||The area selected, normally in a working plan or working scheme, for regeneration generally with a specified period of time in view.
||Quartier de régénération
||The area, and the young trees in the area, being managed during the regeneration interval in the shelterwood silvicultural system. In this interval, old and young trees occupy the same area, the young being protected by the old.
||Classe de régénération
||Any removal of trees intended to assist regeneration already present or to make regeneration possible.
||Coupe de régénération
||The year in which the new crop is deemed to be started at an acceptable stocking level, whether by planting, natural or artificial seeding, or by vegetative means.
||Début de la régénération
||The period between the seed cutting and the final cutting on a particular area under one of the shelterwood systems.
||Durée de régénération
||The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means.
||Période de régénération
||An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area.
||Relevé de la régénération
||A term used in reference to coppice, as well as recovery of vegetation from treatment designed to impede or control its growth.
|Research and development (R&D)
||Set of activities directed toward improving and innovating products and processes from a technological point of view and not from a commercial point of view. Encompasses basic research, applied research and development.
||Recherche et développement (R-D)
||See seed-tree method.
||Coupe à blanc avec réserves
||The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance.
||Swelling containing resin, a sticky gum-like substance.
||Vésicule de résine
||Viscous (liquid or semi-liquid) substances derived from forest biomass and used as adhesives in industrial applications.
||A silvicultural system designed to retain individual trees or groups of trees to maintain structural diversity over the area of the cutblock.
||Coupe à rétention variable
|Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
||Molecule found in the cells of living organisms, where it plays an important role in protein synthesis; in some viruses it is the carrier of genetic information.
||Acide ribonucléique (ARN)
||Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough.
||Plantation sur bourrelet
||Ring structure around the base of some fungi.
||Removing a narrow strip of bark (only), all around a living stem, in order to stimulate flowering or to girdle it; or a felled stem or a log, for under-bark diameter measurement.
||At a large scale, it is the band of forest that has a significant influence on a stream ecosystem or is significantly affected by the stream. At a smaller scale, it is the forest at the immediate water’s edge, where some specialized plants and animals form a distinct community.
|Riparian forest buffer
||A strip of forested land of variable width adjacent to a flowing body of fresh water, which it influences and is affected by. Prone to flooding, a riparian forest buffer can be integrated into an agroforestry system and help counter stream bank erosion, protect water quality, and regularize water flow.
||A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water.
||A toothed blade or set of heavy tines mounted at the front or rear of a vehicle for breaking up soft rock and hard ground, and tearing out stumps and boulders. Also a vehicle so equipped.
||A V-shaped plough mounted with a ripper blade used for scarification on frozen soil.
||The mechanical penetration and shearing of range soils to depths of 3-7 cm for the purpose of breaking hardpan layers to facilitate penetration of plant roots, water, organic matter, and nutrients.
||A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product.
||Évaluation des risques
||Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil.
||Transition point between the roots and the trunk.
||The act of reducing one or more roots considered to be superfluous, usually at some stage before outplanting, in order to improve the shape and size of a root system.
||Élagage des racines
||The act or treatment of immersing, sometimes several times in close succession, the root systems of bare-root planting stock in a clay slurry with the aim of improving outplant performance.
||Pralinage des racines
||An implement, either mounted on the front of a dozer, skidder or forwarder, or trailed, having tines for collecting stumps and slash.
||Decomposition of the woody tissue in roots causing the death of the cambium or bark of the roots, thus girdling the trees at the root collar and causing their death.
||1. The accidental removal of roots during lifting, handling, and planting, especially when caused by improper practices.
2. The removal of bark from roots.
||Dépouillement des racines
||The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting.
||Taille des racines
||The mass of roots, soil and rocks that remains intact when a tree, shrub, or stump is uprooted.
||Feeding on the roots of plants.
||The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis.
||Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
||Rigid or segmented projection on the anterior part of some insect head bearing the mouth parts.
||A site preparation machine using hammers, teeth, tines, or flails mounted on a horizontal drum or horizontal or vertical shaft revolving at high speed.
||Laboureur à lames rotatives
||The planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage or maturity.
||Prescribed burning applied at regular intervals on a specific site as a means of pest control.
||Leaf of variable shape whose length is nearly the same as its width.
||Sections of tree stems, with or without bark. May include logs, bolts, posts and pilings.
||Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers.
||The resulting depressions in the soil due to the repeated passage of a logging machine’s wheels at the same place.
||The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless.
||Coupe de récupération
||The removal—after the main logging—of the rest of the timber, with a view to supplying a different class of product.
||Coupe de récupération
||A winged, one-seeded fruit.
||The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene.
||The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens.
||Feeding on plant sap.
||A general term for a young tree no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, about 1-2 m high and 2-4 cm in dbh, typically growing vigorously and without dead bark or more than an occasional dead branch.
||Refers to organisms that feed on decaying or decayed plant or animal matter.
||Refers to an organism that develops in partially decomposed woody debris.
||Living on rotting wood.
||Insect in the order Hymenoptera; the female has a sawlike structure that it uses for egg-laying.
||Mouche à scie
||Wood produced by sawing logs into smaller parts for further processing.
||Trees that will yield logs suitable in size and quality for the production of lumber.
||Bois de sciage
||(Botany) One of the small overlapping plate-like parts that make up the modified leaf of cedars.
(Entomology) Tiny, overlapping plates covering the wings of butterflies.
||An activity consisting of measuring, by calculation or any other scientific means, the real or apparent volume.
||Paring off low and surface vegetation, with most of its roots, to expose a weed-free soil surface, generally preparatory to sowing or planting thereon. If done by chemicals, termed chemical screefing.
||Feeding on dung or excrement.
||Living in association with dung or excrement.
||The study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it. This is done by making observations and collecting data about natural events and conditions, then organizing and explaining them with hypotheses, theories, models, laws and principles.
|Science and technology (S&T)
||Systematic activities that are closely concerned with the generation, advancement, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge in all fields of science and technology, including such activities as research and development (R&D), scientific and technical education and training, and scientific and technological services.
||Sciences et technologie (S et T)
||An aerial plant part, often a branchlet, that is grafted onto another root-bearing plant (stock, rootstock).
||Cuticular protein that has been hardened and darkened.
||Part of integument hardened through the excretion of calcium (crustaceans) or the deposition of sclerotin.
||A tool for marking trees or round timber by scoring the outer surface.
||The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest.
||Seconde venue, de
|Second growth forest
||The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest.
||Forêt de seconde venue
||A species of inferior quality and/or size, and of lesser silvicultural value, associated with the principal species.
cf. accessory species
||Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem.
|Secondary wood products
||Use of panels or lumber to create higher-value manufactured products, such as flooring, decking, furniture and cabinets.
||Produits de la transformation secondaire du bois
||Herbaceous plants that have narrow leaves with sharp edges, flowers that are grouped into spikes and fruit (achenes) enclosed in small sacs. Sedges grow in tufts at the water’s edge and in wetlands.
||Fertilized ovule that contains an embryo and has the capacity to produce a new individual.
||A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability.
||Banque de semences
||1. Any tree producing seed.
2. Any tree retained to provide seed for natural regeneration, e.g., during seed cuttings.
|Seed collection area
||A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest.
||Zone de récolte de semences
||Removing trees in a mature stand so as to effect permanent opening of its canopy (if there was no preparatory cutting to do this) and so provide conditions for securing regeneration from the seed of trees retained for that purpose.
||A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc.
||Verger à graines
||The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc.
||Origine des graines
A prepared, limited space, e.g., a small, cultivated patch, within which (tree) seeds are sown.
||A device for catching the seeds falling on a small area of ground, from trees or shrubs. Used for determining the amount of seedfall and the time, period, rate, and distance of dissemination.
||Piège à semences
||A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration.
||The year in which a tree species produces, either as an individual or a crop, an adequate amount of seed; applies to any species but particularly to those with irregular or infrequent seed production.
||Feeding on seeds.
||A method of regenerating a forest stand in which all trees are removed from the area except for a small number of seed-bearing trees that are left singly or in small groups.
||Mode de régénération par coupe avec réserve de semenciers
||In natural regeneration, the soil or forest floor on which seed falls. In nursery practice, and also in the field, a prepared area over which seed is sown.
||Lit de germination
||aerial [ensemencement aérien]: Broadcast seeding of seeds or seed pellets from aircraft.
broadcast [ensemencement à la volée]: The sowing of seeds more or less evenly over a whole area.
||Young plant that has grown from a seed.
||Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation.
||Annual or periodic cutting of trees chosen individually or by groups, in an uneven-aged stand, in order to recover the yield and develop a balanced uneven-aged stand structure, while providing the cultural measures required for tree growth.
||Coupe de jardinage
||The average phenotypic value of the selected individuals, expressed as a deviation from the population mean.
||Différentiel de sélection
||Forest treated and managed under the selection system.
||A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips.
||Environmental influences on an organism that determine its likelihood of being preferentially selected among its co-habitants, that is, having a better survival and/or reproduction.
||Made from wood fibres broken down by both chemical and mechanical processes.
||Feeding on grain or seeds.
||Coming late; particularly applied to plant species or individuals with cones that remain on the tree without opening for one or more years (e.g., Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana).
||Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities.
||An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs whose canopy provides the appropriate level of shade to grow shade-requiring (perennial) crops.
||Système de production sous couvert forestier
|Shakes and shingles
||Thin, tapered pieces of wood (usually cedar) used for roofing. Shakes are split from a block of wood. Shingles are sawn and more precisely milled.
||Bardeaux de fente et bardeaux
||A mechanical site preparation device consisting of pairs of metal barrels on which are welded steel fins along opposing spiral lines.
||1. A method of harvest using mechanical shears.
2. The shaping of a tree crown, particularly with respect to Christmas trees or ornamentals, by removing part of the leader and/or the ends of live branches to comply with a desired crown for
||Abattage à la cisaille (mécanique)
||A strip of living trees and/or shrubs maintained mainly to provide shelter for open land from wind, desiccation, snow-drift, etc.
||Any regeneration cutting in a more or less regular and mature crop, designed to establish a new crop under the protection (overhead or side) of the old, or where the resultant crop will be more or less regular.
||Large area of Crystalline Precambrian rock that forms the core of continents.
||Cutting away undesirable shoots to favor survival and growth of selected shoots.
||Élagage des rejets
||Felling and cross-cutting on the spot, i.e. transporting the logs from the cutting, not the whole bole or tree.
||Exploitation en bois courts
||A perennial plant differing from a perennial herb in its persistent and woody stem(s), and less definitely from a tree in its lower stature and the general absence of a well-defined main stem.
||The surface of wood when it is cut parallel to the growth rings.
||Bois de fil
||The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture.
||The capacity of a herbicide indirectly to promote positive growth responses in crop trees.
||A series of stand tending (thinning, pruning, etc.) treatments applied after regeneration to achieve a specific stand management objective.
||A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products.
Note: the system is named by the cutting
||The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management.
||Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc.
||An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together.
||An agroforestry practice involving the compatible combination of tree growing with forage and livestock production in order to maximize both ecological and economic benefits.
|Simple coppice system
||A coppice system in which the crop is clearcut and regenerated by stool shoots, stump sprouts, or root suckers, giving even-aged stands; rotation is relatively short.
|Single tree selection
||A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which individual trees are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand.
||Jardinage par arbre
||A plough with one moldboard, generally right-hand, turning the whole furrow slice to one side of the furrow.
||Charrue à versoir simple
||A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives.
||The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. Expressed in cubic metres per he
||Potentiel de station
||Any interval into which the site index range is divided for purposes of classification and use.
||Classe de station
||Application of analytical techniques based on macroclimate, soil, land form, and vegetation, to predict yield.
||Classification de station
||An ecological term referring to a physical or biological parameter used to describe and distinguish sites.
||Facteur de station
||Modifications to a given site in order to improve growing conditions for a specific species or mixture of species.
||Amélioration de la station
||An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species.
||Indice de station
||The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year).
||Qualité de station
||Ranges in tree sizes representing stages in the development of a tree or stand.
||Classe de dimension
||Organism that devours the upper layer of leaves but not the veins.
||A self-propelled logging machine with an articulated frame, used for hauling operations.
||The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems.
||Intentional burning of debris resulting from timber harvesting operations, where the fuel has not been piled or windrowed, allowing the fire to spread freely over the entire harvested area.
||Brûlage à plat
||Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure.
||Plantation en fente
|Slope of grain
||The angle made between the long axis of wood cells (the grain direction) and the length of a piece of wood.
||Pente de fil
||Mixture of polluting particles and water drops in the atmosphere that forms a thick fog in industrial regions.
||A fire burning without flame and barely spreading.
||A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen.
||Removing or cutting away snags, on land or in water.
||Arasement des chicots
||Pertaining to an organism that feeds on snails.
||A snag composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, particularly in the sapwood portion.
||A process by which clones are produced by cell growth from a seed embryo.
||A prepared, sometimes fertilized, block or ball of loam, peat, plastic foam, etc., into which one or more seeds are pressed, so that, on planting out, the emergent seedling can have a better start in an unfavorable environment.
||Motte à semis
||The distance between trees in a plantation, a thinned stand, or a natural stand.
v: see thinning: spacing
||A variety of distinctive papers designed and produced for particular uses, such as: Thermal paper and labels.
||Papier de spécialité
|Specialty wood product
||Any forest commodity made of wood and not intended for the high-volume conventional forest sector, thus excluding lumber, fibreboard, and pulp and paper. Examples include carvings, canoes, snowshoes, bowls, utensils, toys, jewellery, decorative boxes, and musical instruments. Specialty wood products often enhance the value of residual wood from forest harvesting (for example, tree stumps, knotted trees, and blue-stained wood attacked by the mountain pine beetle) or of shrub and tree species with a unique wood grain pattern (for example, bird’s eye maple).
||Produit du bois spécialisé
||Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny
||Canadian woods of similar characteristics that are grouped as one lumber type for production and marketing purposes.
||Cell or group of cells capable of producing a new organism.
||Deposit of spores released into the air or onto a surface when a fungus cap is placed gills downwards.
||Circular or nearly circular lesions that appear on a leaf blade. They have a central zone of necrotic (dead, brown) tissue colonized by a pathogen; this zone is surrounded by healthy, coloured tissue.
||Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches.
||Plantation sur placeaux
||A scarification implement enabling site preparation on patches.
||Scarificateur sur placeaux
||Removing undesirable vegetation from patches.
||Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited.
||Generally, any shoot arising from a plant. More particularly, a shoot arising from the base of a plant, from the stool (stool shoot) or from the root (sucker).
||Rejet de taillis
||When each of the four edges of a piece of lumber form a clean 90-degree angle with no wane.
||A large, squared piece of a log at least 5.5 inches wide. Used to form post-and-beam style buildings.
||Distinct period separating the successive moults that occur during larval development. Period or phase in the life cycle of anthropods. Eg, egg stage, larval stage, pupal stage and adult stage.
||Describes condition of stands whose growth and development have all but ceased due to poor site and/or excessive stocking.
||A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity.
||The descriptive measurement of a stand by the criteria of composition, health, age, size, volume, or spatial arrangement.
||État d’un peuplement
||A quantitative measurement of tree stocking, expressed in terms of number of trees, total basal area, or volume, per unit of area. More precisely, a measure of the degree of crowding of trees within a stand.
||Densité de peuplement
||A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height.
||Modèle de peuplement
||A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes.
||Table de peuplement
||A tree selected to remain standing, after the rest of the stand has been felled over a younger or a new crop, for some special purpose, e.g., shelter, seeding, production of a special quality or size of timber.
||People who are entitled to have their names included on the Indian Register, an official list maintained by the federal government. Status Indians are entitled to certain rights and benefits under the law.
||Tree incapable of reproducing sexually.
||The science, art and skill of responsible and accountable management of resources.
||A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type.
||Table de stock
|Stocked forest land
||Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings.
||Terrain forestier boisé
||In regeneration surveys, a quadrat having at least one live tree seedling or regrowth. The criteria for what constitutes a "stocked" area vary with species, site, country, etc.
||A qualitative expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown closure, number of trees, basal area, or volume, in relation to a preestablished norm.
||Reference level for the optimum proportion of an area actually occupied by trees, expressed in terms of stocked quadrats or percentage of canopy closure.
||Guide de stocking
||Microscopic opening, many of which are found on the underside of plant leaves, permitting transpiration and gaseous exchanges (pl. stomata).
||1. Silviculture: A living stump capable of producing sprouts or shoots.
2. Propagation: A living stump maintained to produce cuttings, layers, etc.
|Storied high forest
||A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer.
||A horizontal stratum or layer in a plant community; in forests, appearing as one or more canopies.
A forest having more than two stories is called multistoried. A forest having one story (the main story) is called single-storied.
||A specialized knife-cut wood flake of controlled thickness and a length along the grain orientation of at least twice and usually many times its width.
||The storage of seeds under defined conditions of environment (temperature, moisture, gas exchange, medium, etc.) for specified periods in order to overcome passive or active inhibition of germination.
||An insulated building panel made from a rigid insulation core (like styrofoam) and covered by two sheets of structural panel material.
||Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion.
||Plantation en lisières
||Removal of the crop in strips in more than one operations, generally for encouraging natural regeneration or protecting fragile sites. Considered to be a variation of clearcutting.
||Coupe par bandes
||Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared.
||Plantation en bandes
||Wood suitable for framing and load-bearing structures essentially by virtue of its strength.
||Bois de charpente
||A wide, flat material used as a load-bearing component in wooden construction (such as floors, wall sheathing, roof sheathing) or to make ncrete forms.
||The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures).
||The broken or cut base of a branch projecting from a tree stem.
||A vertical structural member used in construction of walls—typically 92 5/8 inches tall.
||Part of trunk with roots remaining after a tree has been cut down.
||A general term for the process of pulling out stumps by force. Removal of stumps may be done to facilitate scarification or to prevent infection from diseased root systems.
||Application of herbicides to or near hardwood stumps to prevent coppicing. Also, fungicides or paint can be applied to prevent fungal infection.
||Badigeonnage de souches
||The fee paid by an individual or company for the timber they harvest from public forests or privately owned forest land.
||Droit de coupe
||Characteristic of a plant that has not developed normally and resembles a bonsai.
||Sharp, stiff structure in the mouth parts of certain piercing-sucking insects and barb in bees and wasps.
||A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health.
||Équivalence en substance
||The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral.
||A shoot or tree originating from adventitious buds on roots.
||Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts modified for sucking food, by means of a tube or proboscis (beak).
||Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts designed for collecting flower nectar.
||An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs with agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun. As the trees/shrubs grow, the canopy closes, and the level of shade increases, a sun system may become a shade system or another agroforestry system. (See also intercropping.)
||Système de production à découvert
||The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs.
||Sustainable development in forestry expands the principle of sustained timber yield by including wildlife and fish habitats, watersheds and hydrological cycles, as well as gene pools and species diversity.
|Sustainable forest development
||The development of forests to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity or capacity for regeneration.
||Développement durable des forêts
|Sustainable forest management
||Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for present and future generations.
||Aménagement forestier durable
||Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions.
|Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality.
||Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management.
||The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management.
||Foresterie à rendement soutenu
||The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial.
||A mixture of gases resulting from reacting carbon rich substances with steam in a reduced oxygen environment (partial oxidation), which contains mostly carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The organic source materials can be biomass, natural gas, methane, naphtha, heavy petroleum oils and coke (coal).
||Gaz de synthèse
||see slit planting
||Bêchage en T
||Subarea of the extensive boreal zone characterized by open coniferous forest with lichens.
||An oily liquid by-product of the so-called “kraft” pulping process (particularly of pine wood), composed of a mixture of rosins, fatty acids, and other substances. Soaps, emulsifiers, adhesives, and lubricants are only a few of the many value-added bioproducts that can be made from recovered tall oil.
||An import tax or a list of articles and the import tax that must be paid on items on that list. A protective tariff is meant to protect local businesses from foreign competition; a retaliatory tariff is in response to a foreign country's tax on goods from your country; and an antidumping tariff is to prevent foreign countries from selling their goods in the importing country at a lower price than the goods sell for the foreign country or at a price lower than the manufacturing cost.
||The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop.
||Plantation en taungya
||Set of rules governing the classification and naming of species.
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees.
||Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation.
||An operation comprising cleanings and thinnings.
||The terms under which a forest manager or owner possesses the rights, and assumes the responsibilities, to use, harvest or manage one or more forest resource in a specified forest area for a specified period of time. Forest tenures of public land in Canada fall into two main categories: area-based and volume-based.
||Living in the soil or litter.
||Vegetative plant body that is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves, although some analogous structures may be present.
||Coated with a chemical that changes colour when exposed to heat. Used in thermal printers, cash registers and credit card terminals.
||Thermal and chemical processes by which carbon-rich substances are converted to intermediate chemicals for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials.
||The most commonly used material in plastics processing. Softens with heat and solidifies when cooled.
||A dense growth of small trees or bushes.
||A partial cutting or spacing operation made in an immature forest stand to accelerate the growth of the remaining trees.
||The time interval between thinnings in the same stand.
||The severity of low thinning based on the crown classes removed, ranging from very light (Grade A) to very heavy (Grade E).
||A measure of the combined effect of thinning weight and thinning frequency, in terms of the volume removed during any succession of thinnings, sometimes expressed as an average annual stand depletion.
||Removal of seedling or sapling in excess in a young stand in order to favor residual tree development.
||A term comprising the type, degree, and frequency of thinning for a given area, generally along with the year of commencement and sometimes termination.
||Two or more adjacent forest plots that are thinned differently (e.g., to different thinning grades), essentially so as to compare the increment of individual stems.
||Groupe d’éclaircies comparées
||A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed.
||Any of numerous insects in the order Thysanoptera that are of minute size, have fringed wings (if winged) and feed mostly on plant juices.
||Parasitic acarian that feeds on animal blood.
||In contour furrowing and trenching, a narrow strip of ground left unexcavated so as to break the horizontal continuity of the trenching and thus contain and properly distribute any precipitation.
||A general term for forest crops and stands, and sometimes for any lesser aggregation of such trees.
||Multiple rows of trees planted to provide environmental benefits (including wind protection, soil conservation, and wildlife corridors) and the opportunity for woody biomass production for conversion into bioenergy and other bioproducts. It can also act as an agroforestry system for the production of agricultural or forest-derived crops.
||A plough in which the leading edge of the landside is extended forward and downward as a tine-bearing replaceable sock.
||Charrue à éperon
||A general term for the cultivation of plant or animal tissues in a controlled artificial environment on defined media under aseptic conditions.
||Culture de tissus
||The ability of an organism or biological process to subsist under a given set of environmental conditions. The range of these under which it can subsist, representing its limits of tolerance, is termed its ecological amplitude.
||A method of connecting two pieces of a wooden product by shaping a ridge on one piece that fits into a slot on an adjacent piece (the connection hides the gap between the two pieces).
||Assemblage à rainure et languette
||Specifically within forestry, this involves the selection of trees with desirable traits and breeding them to produce improved offspring. (See also modern biotechnology.)
||A tree beneath the main canopy which by its shading and/or abrasive action hastens the natural pruning or improves the form of some other tree.
||A distinguishable characteristic of an organism.
||Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria.
||Genetically engineered to contain DNA from an external source, such as another species or a different variety. Many transgenic plants are more herbicide tolerant, are resistant to insect or viral pests, or produce modified versions of fruit or flowers.
||A seedling that has been replanted one or more times in a nursery to improve its size and growth potential characteristics. Also a tree that is moved from one place to another.
||A simple device having regularly spaced slots for the individual plants so as to ensure proper spacing and lining out in the new bed.
||Planche à repiquer
||An implement used to line out transplants in a nursery.
||A plough used in the nursery to open trench for the roots of plants being lined out, while simultaneously backfilling it.
||A legally binding agreement, often between two parties.
||Any class into which the trees forming a crop or stand may be divided for a variety of purposes.
||Privately owned woodland in which the production of wood fibre is a primary management goal, as distinct from a tree nursery, fruit orchard, or landscape business.
||Propriété forestière de production
||The deliberate introduction, by pressure or simple absorption of a chemical -- generally a water-soluble salt in solution -- into the sapstream of a living tree.
||A specially designed tool used to inject a solution into a living tree.
||Selection and indication, usually by marking with paint on the stem, of trees to be felled or retained.
||A machine designed to shake a tree in order to dislodge its fruits for collection from the ground.
||Hydraulic accessory attached to a machine used for transplanting landscape stock.
||Pelle hydraulique à arbres
||The care and repair of trees valued for amenity.
||Chirurgie des arbres
||Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit.
||Plantation en sillon
||In a planting machine, a metal shoe behind the share, which makes the trench for the plant roots.
||Site preparation technique creating a more or less continuous furrow, with surface debris, duff, and low vegetation scattered to one side, using shaping devices pulled or often hydraulically powered by a prime mover.
||Scarifiage par sillons
||Shaped lengths of wood or composite material used in decorative applications such as around door or window frames (moulding is often used for trim).
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, temperate forest). A tropical woodland with an annual rainfall of a least 250 cm; marked by broad-leaved evergreen trees forming a continuous canopy.
||Part of the tree that is generally straight and vertical, located between the root collar and the branches (crown).
||Structural frames with a triangular arrangement of webs and chords to transfer loads to reaction points. Used as a structural support in residential and non-residential roof structures.
||Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted.
||Plantation de semis en tube
||Cylindrical structures beneath the fungus cap constituting the hymenium in certain fungi. A tubular opening made by a worm or another animal.
||Dwelling in a tube, eg pine tube moth.
||The smallest division of a branch which bears the annual shoot.
||A type of warp that results in the four corners of a piece of lumber no longer being in the same plane.
||A plough with two moldboards turning the furrow slices to the same side.
||Charrue à deux socs et versoirs simultanés
||Root-pruning of nursery stock in situ, particularly by horizontal cut.
||Young trees used for underplanting.
||Plant de sous-étage
||Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand.
||Plantation en sous-étage
||The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs.
||Removal of mature trees while damage to the understory is kept to a minimum.
||Protection du sous-étage
||Species that conflict with or do not contribute to the management objectives.
||Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years.
||A silvicultural system in which stands have an uneven-aged structure.
||Having only one generation per season.
||Of a tree or stand that has not attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting.
||The removal of trees with their roots by detaching or breaking the roots below the ground surface.
||The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas.
||A product that has had value added to it through further processing. Examples include windows, doors, kitchen cabinets, flooring and mouldings. Value-added pulp and paper products include items such as packaging, diapers, coated papers, tissue, business papers, stationery and other consumer paper products.
||Produit à valeur ajoutée
||A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat.
||Specifically within forestry, any clone or product of breeding given a separate name.
||Subdivision of species, a group of individuals that have common characteristics (example : The different varieties of apples).
||Any DNA-containing structure that is used to transfer DNA into an organism. The most commonly used vectors are plasmid DNA and bacteriophages or other viruses.
||Reproduction by other than sexually produced seed. Includes grafting, budding, rooting of cuttings, and tissue and cell culture, including embryogenesis.
||Distribution of veins on the wings of an insect or on a leaf.
||A thin layer of wood prepared by peeling or slicing a log. Used to overlay other wood products like cabinets, doors and furniture.
||The diversity in a stand that results from the complexity of the above-ground structure of the vegetation.
||The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest.
||Small, bladder-like structure.
||Organ that is diminished in size and often nonfunctional.
||Of a seed, spore, or pollen grain, its capacity to germinate and develop, under given conditions.
||Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage.
||Classe de vigueur
||Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity.
||Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it.
||Primitive microorganisms that must infect the living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria in order to replicate. When outside the host cells, viruses adopt a form consisting, most of the time, of a RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by a protein matrix.
||Bringing forth living, fully formed individuals that are capable of feeding. Said of producing bulbils on young plants, instead of and in place of flowers.
||They allow licensees to harvest specific volumes of timber from a broadly defined area. Several licensees can hold such rights within the same area. The provincial regulatory agency is usually responsible for management planning, but tenure holders may be obliged to assume forest management responsibilities.
||Tenures fondées sur le volume
||Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area.
||Cup-like sheath surrounding the stem base in some fungi, eg, Amanita; it is a remnant of the universal veil.
||A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors.
||The presence of bark or the absence of wood along the edges of a piece of lumber resulting from the curved outer surface of the log as it is broken down into straight-edged lumber.
||When the edge or surface of lumber no longer remains straight because of uneven shrinkage along the length of a piece of lumber.
||The act of dropping suppressants (water or short-term retardant) on a wildfire from an aircraft in flight.
||The area drained by an underground or surface stream, or by a system of streams.
||A connecting and strengthening component used to join other structural elements in products such as I-beams.
||Organism that spins a silk shelter in which to hide or feed.
||A modification of the strip shelterwood system in which cuttings begin as narrow, interior, wedge-shaped strips with the apex into the prevailing wind, and are then successively enlarged and advanced; regeneration is mainly natural.
||Mode de régénération par coupes progressives en coin
||Any tree of a species having little or no economic value on the site in question.
||A release treatment in stands during the seedling stage that eliminates or suppresses undesirable vegetation regardless of crown position.
||1. A bare-root hardwood planting stock.
2. Any slender tree that the wind causes to lacerate the crowns of its neighbors.
||Uncultivated land other than fallow. Land currently little influenced by human activity.
||The wildland-urban interface broadly refers to the area where forests meet houses and infrastructure that is part of communities.
||Surface limite entre les terres non défrichées et les zones urbaines
||syn.: wilding, wild seedling
A naturally grown, in contrast to a nursery-raised, seedling, sometimes used in forest planting when nursery stock is scarce.
||Drying out, loss of colour and shape of leaves, then twigs and branches, caused by a lack of water or the presence of toxins.
||Condition of trees having a curved stem as a consequence of wind action or compression due to heavy load on the crown of the tree.
||Courbé par le vent
||Condition of trees having a leaning stem, result of partial uprooting or wind action.
||Couché par le vent
||Movement of tree stems in the wind, which may lead to chafing of the collar and sometimes of the roots, and, in very wet soil, loosening of the ground.
||Balancement au vent
||A small-scale shelterbelt or other barrier, natural or artificial, maintained against the wind.
||1. A tree or trees thrown down or with their stems broken off or other parts blown down by the wind.
2. Any area on which the trees have been thrown down or broken by the wind.
||Of trees, able to withstand strong winds, i.e., to resist windthrow, windrocking, and major breakage. Such trees may not remain upright but show wind lean or wind bend or both.
||Stable au vent
||Slash, brushwood, etc., concentrated along a line so as to clear the intervening ground between two of them.
||Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing.
||Plantation sur entrandain
||Uprooting by the wind. 2. Tree or trees so uprooted.
||Déracinement par le vent
||Excessive proliferation of twigs from one location on a branch or several locations close together. The twigs in a broom are erect and compacted.
||Balai de sorcière
||A tree, generally overtopping and of poor form, that occupies more growing space than its commercial value warrants.
||A plant tissue composed essentially of lignified fibers of cellulose and hemicellulose. Wood is present in the stems of trees and shrubs where it ensures support and conducts water. (See also cellulose and lignin.)
||Products made from wood waste or residues created in the manufacturing of other wood products.
||Composites de bois
|Wood connection technologies
||Fastenings (nails, screws, bolts, pressure-applied plates, etc.) that join wood to wood, metal, concrete, plastic or any other solid material.
||Technologies de fixation du bois
||A fuel made from wood shavings, bark, sawdust and chips compressed or bound together. Low moisture content and easily transported over long distances.
||Granules de bois
||Produced by mixing small pieces of wood with cement under pressure. Non-structural uses include acoustic ceiling tiles, siding and roadside noise barriers; structural uses include concrete-filled insulating forms.
||A mixture or mechanical combination of wood and plastic resins that are solid in a finished state, are mutually insoluble and differ in chemical nature.
||Composite bois plastique
||Dead and decomposing wood of various sizes.
||Plant tissue containing lignin, the main component of wood.
||An aggregate of forest stands, or forest stand and forest sites, which are grouped for the purpose of applying a common set of silvicultural treatments (also called operational group).
||Resembling a worm.
||That feeds on wood.
||Feeding on woody tissues (wood).
||Growing in or living on wood.
||A one-year-old seedling.
||Semis de l’année
||Tables and graphs illustrating volumes per hectare of stands at a specific age.
normal yield table [table de rendement normal]: Estimated stand volume per age class at normal stocking.
||Table de rendement
||Refers to organisms that feed on animals (including other arthropods).