Canadian Forest Service Publications
Seed cone traits and insect damage in Tsuga canadensis (Pinaceae) 2004. Turgeon, J.J.; Jones, C.G.; Bellocq, M.I. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 261-265.
Issued by: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 25669
CFS Availability: Order paper copy (free)
We measured seed cones of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, assessed seed potential (number of fertile scales × 2) and seed efficiency (number of filled seeds/seed potential), and estimated the impact of Eupithecia mutata Pearsall (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) and Megastigmus hoffmeyeri Walley (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) on seed production. Mean length, width, and volume of healthy cones varied little among sites from Ontario. Cones had about 28 scales; 13 were sterile. Seed potential and seed efficiency differed among sites, ranging from 25 to 31 ovules and 24% to 72%, respectively. The number of scales (both sterile and fertile) increased with cone volume, but the proportion of fertile scales was independent of cone size. The maximum proportion of cones infested by E. mutata was 21%. On average, each larva destroyed >90% of the filled seeds from each cone, thus from a practical perspective, the proportion of T. canadensis seeds destroyed per site was equivalent to the proportion of seed cones infested. The proportion of cones infested by M. hoffmeyeri ranged from 9% to 40%, but the proportion of seeds destroyed per site (range: 1.1%–6.1%) was much lower than that of E. mutata. The maximum number of M. hoffmeyeri-infested seeds per cone was seven. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting cone traits of T. canadensis and the impact of E. mutata and M. hoffmeyeri.